Monday, September 15, 2008

Rif Gittin 30a {64a - b}


{Gittin 64a}

קיבל למה לי
אמר רבא הא מני רבי אלעזר היא דאמר עדי מסירה כרתי
קרע למה לי
אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעת הגזירה שנו.
{Having settled the question of the first two witnesses, to the telling of the agent, the gemara now continues:}
{The testimony of another set of witnesses} For the receiving, why do I need?
Rava said: Who is this {author}? It is Rabbi Eleazar, who said that witnesses to the delivery effect it {the divorce}.
{Those same second set of witnesses testifying} That is was torn up, why do I need?
Rav Yehuda cited Rav: They learned this at the time of the decree {=persecution, when practicing Judaism was forbidden}.

איתמר בעל אמר לגירושין ושליש אמר לגירושין והיא אומרת נתנו לי ואבד ממני
א"ר יוחנן הוה דבר שבערוה ואין דבר שבערוה פחות משנים
אמאי וניהמניה לשליש מי קא נפיק גיטא מתותיה ידיה דליהמניה

מהא שמעינן דהילכתא כרב חסדא והיינו דאמרי' דסוגיין כוותיה
It was stated {by Amoraim}:
The husband said "it was for divorce," the depository said "it was for divorce," and she said "it was given to me and it was lost from me."
Rabbi Yochanan said: This is something having to do with forbidden relationships, and there is nothing having to do with forbidden relationships {which is established} with less than two {witnesses}.
But why? Let us believe the trustee?
{The answer:} And does the trustee produce the get from under his hand, that he should be believed?

From this we deduce that the halacha is like Rav Chisda, and this is what we said that the sugya is like him.

ולימא חזקה שליח עושה שליחותו
דאמר רב יצחק בר יוסף אמר רבי יוחנן האומר לשלוחו צא וקדש לי אשה ומת שליח אסור בכל הנשים חזקה שליח עושה שליחותו
[כי אמרינן חזקה שליח עושה שליחותו] לחומרא אבל לקולא לא.
And let us say that there is a presumption that the agent fulfilled his agency? For Rav Yitzchak bar Yosef cited Rabbi Yochanan: If one said to his agent, "go and betroth for me a woman," and then the agent died, he {=the sender} is forbidden to all women, for there is a presumption that an agent fulfills his agency.
When do we say that there is a presumption that an agent fulfills his agency?
{Gittin 64b}
Stringently, but leniently, no.

ולהימנוה לדידה מדרב המנונא
דאמר רב המנונא האשה שאמרה לבעלה גירשתני נאמנת חזקה אין אשה מעיזה פניה בפני בעלה
ה"מ היכא דליכא דמסייע לה אבל היכא דאיכא (בעל ושליש) דקא מסייעי לה מעיזה:
And let us believe her, based upon Rav Hamnuna? For Rav Hamnuna said: The woman who says to her husband "you have divorced me," she is believed, as a presumption that a woman would not be so brazen before her husband.
These words are where there is nothing to support her, but where there is something (* the husband and the depository *) to support her, she would be brazen.

והשתא דאמרת דאמרינן חזקה שליח עושה שליחותו לחומרא אי בעלה כהן הוא איתסרא עליה ולעלמא לא משתריא עד דיהיב לה גיטא אחרינא ואי מיית ועדיין לא יהיב לה גיטא אחרינא אסירא לכהן ואי אית לה יבם חולצת ולא מתייבמת:
And now that you have said that we say that the presumption that an agent fulfills his agency is only towards stringency, if her husband is a kohen, she is forbidden to him {since she cannot remarry him, since she has the status of divorcee}, and to the whole world she is not permitted until he gives her another get {since she may still be married}. And if he dies and he did not yet give her the get, she is forbidden to a kohen {since the first get might have actually been effective such that she would be a divorcee rather than a widow}, and if there is a levir, she undergoes chalitza but not yibbum.

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