Friday, June 09, 2006

Rif Yoma 1a {Yoma 73b; 76a}



{Yoma 73b}
On the Day of Atonement it is forbidden to eat and to drink, to wash, to anoint, to lace on shoes, and to hold sexual intercourse.
A king and a bride may wash their faces; and a lying-in woman may lace on shoes. Such is the decree of Rabbi Eliezar.
But the sages forbid it.

{Yoma 76a}
To what do these five modes of affliction correspond?
Rav Chisda said: To the five kinds of affliction found in the Torah, {namely}:
{Vayikra 23:32}

לב שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן הוּא לָכֶם, וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת-נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם; בְּתִשְׁעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ, בָּעֶרֶב--מֵעֶרֶב עַד-עֶרֶב, תִּשְׁבְּתוּ שַׁבַּתְּכֶם. {פ} 32 It shall be unto you a sabbath of solemn rest, and ye shall afflict your souls; in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye keep your sabbath.
{Vayikra 16:31}:
לא שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן הִיא לָכֶם, וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת-נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם--חֻקַּת, עוֹלָם. 31 It is a sabbath of solemn rest unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls; it is a statute for ever.
{Bemidbar 29:7}:
ז וּבֶעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי הַזֶּה, מִקְרָא-קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם, וְעִנִּיתֶם, אֶת-נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם; כָּל-מְלָאכָה, לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ. 7 And on the tenth day of this seventh month ye shall have a holy convocation; and ye shall afflict your souls; ye shall do no manner of work;
{Vayikra 23:27}
כז אַךְ בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי הַזֶּה יוֹם הַכִּפֻּרִים הוּא, מִקְרָא-קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם, וְעִנִּיתֶם, אֶת-נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם; וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם אִשֶּׁה, לַיהוָה. 27 Howbeit on the tenth day of this seventh month is the day of atonement; there shall be a holy convocation unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls; and ye shall bring an offering made by fire unto the LORD.
{Vayikra 16:29}:
כט וְהָיְתָה לָכֶם, לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם: בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ תְּעַנּוּ אֶת-נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם, וְכָל-מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ--הָאֶזְרָח, וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם. 29 And it shall be a statute for ever unto you: in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, and shall do no manner of work, the home-born, or the stranger that sojourneth among you.
{These are references to five pesukim which mention afflicting your souls.}

There are five verses but we learnt in the Mishna six {afflictions}!

Drinking is included in eating. For Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: How do we know that drinking is incorporated in eating? For it is stated {Devarim 14:23}:

כג וְאָכַלְתָּ לִפְנֵי ה אֱלֹקיךָ, בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר-יִבְחַר לְשַׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ שָׁם, מַעְשַׂר דְּגָנְךָ תִּירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ, וּבְכֹרֹת בְּקָרְךָ וְצֹאנֶךָ: לְמַעַן תִּלְמַד, לְיִרְאָה אֶת-ה אֱלֹקיךָ--כָּל-הַיָּמִים. 23 And thou shalt eat before the LORD thy God, in the place which He shall choose to cause His name to dwell there, the tithe of thy corn, of thy wine, and of thine oil, and the firstlings of thy herd and of thy flock; that thou mayest learn to fear the LORD thy God always.
and tirosh {mentioned in this verse} is wine, and it calls upon it ve`achalta, "and thou shalt eat."

And it also is written {Devarim 14:}
כה וְנָתַתָּה, בַּכָּסֶף; וְצַרְתָּ הַכֶּסֶף, בְּיָדְךָ, וְהָלַכְתָּ אֶל-הַמָּקוֹם, אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר ה אֱלֹקיךָ בּוֹ. 25 then shalt thou turn it into money, and bind up the money in thy hand, and shalt go unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose.
כו וְנָתַתָּה הַכֶּסֶף בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר-תְּאַוֶּה נַפְשְׁךָ בַּבָּקָר וּבַצֹּאן, וּבַיַּיִן וּבַשֵּׁכָר, וּבְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁאָלְךָ, נַפְשֶׁךָ; וְאָכַלְתָּ שָּׁם, לִפְנֵי ה אֱלֹקֶיךָ, וְשָׂמַחְתָּ, אַתָּה וּבֵיתֶךָ. 26 And thou shalt bestow the money for whatsoever thy soul desireth, for oxen, or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for whatsoever thy soul asketh of thee; and thou shalt eat there before the LORD thy God, and thou shalt rejoice, thou and thy household.
and {besides the wine being explicitly mentioned}, shechar is a drink, and the verse calls upon it ve`achalta, "and thou shalt eat."