Sunday, September 09, 2007

Rif Ketubot 3a {8b-9a} Blessings of Grooms; An Open Opening and Doubt


{Ketubot 8b}

א"ר יצחק אמר ר' יוחנן מברכין ברכת חתנים בעשרה כל שבעה וחתנים מן המנין ברכת אבלים בעשרה [כל שבעה] ואין אבלים מן המנין והוא שבאו פנים חדשות
מאי ברכת אבלים ברכת רחבה:
Rabbi Yitchak cited Rabbi Yochanan: They bless the blessing of grooms with ten {men} all seven {days}, and the groom is among the count. The blessing of mourners is with ten [all seven] and the mourners are not among the count. And this is where new faces came.
What is the blessing of mourners? The blessing in the street.

{Ketubot 9a}
אמר ר' אלעזר האומר פתח פתוח מצאתי נאמן לאוסרה עליו דשויא אנפשיה חתיכא דאיסורא
וה"מ באשת כהן
פירוש דליכא אלא חד ספקא
ספק תחתיו ספק אין תחתיו
ולא מצית אמרת אם תמצא לומר תחתיו ספק מוכת עץ ספק דרוסת איש דמוכת עץ פתחה סתום
אי נמי באשת ישראל והוא שקבל בה אביה קדושין פחותה מבת ג' שנים ויום אחד דהוה ליה חד ספקא
ספק באונס ספק ברצון וספקא דאורייתא לחומרא
אבל אשת ישראל שנתקדשה יתירה על בת שלש שנים ויום אחד מותרת דהוויין לה תרי ספיקי ספק תחתיו זינתה ספק אין תחתיו ואם תמצא לומר תחתיו ספק ברצון ספק באונס הלכך הוויין לה תרי ספיקי ותרי ספיקי דאורייתא לקולא:
Rabbi Eleazar said: If he says "I found an open opening" {=she was not a virgin as I had expected}, he is believed to forbid her upon him, for he he may impose upon himself a forbidden piece of meat. And these words are by the wife of a kohen.
To explain: Where there is only a single doubt -- it is a doubt whether it was when she was with him {=betrothed to him} of not with him {=before that}. And you cannot say {the argument} that if you say it was while with him, it is a doubt whether it was the result of wood puncturing or whether of being trodden by a man, for one for whom it was the result of injury from wood, her opening is closed.
And if you want, say it is by the wife of an Israelite, and this is where her father accepted the betrothal when she was less than three years and a day {since the hymen will grow back if broken when less than that age}, such that it is a single doubt -- a doubt whether it was rape or whether it was willingly, and in a case of Biblical doubt, we rule stringently.
However, the wife of an Israelite who was betrothed when older than three years and a day, she is permitted, for we have in her two doubts -- a doubt whether while with him she had unlawful intercourse or whether while she was not with him she had the unlawful intercourse, and in you say that it was while with him, it is a doubt whether it was willingly or unwillingly. Therefore, she has to her two doubts, and in case of two Biblical doubts, we rule leniently.

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