Wednesday, April 27, 2005

Rif Brachot 36a


{Brachot 48b continues}
Rabbi Yossi says: He needs to mention Torah {which we fulfill with the words veAl Toratecha SheLimadtanu}. Plimo says: he needs to precede {the mention of} brit {milah} to Torah, for this {Torah} was given with three covenants, and this {brit milah} was given with thirteen covenants.

{Brachot 49a}
Rabbi Abba says he needs to say Hoda`a {thanksgiving} in the beginning and at the end {which we fulfill be starting Nodeh Lecha and ending veAl HaKol Hashem Elokeinu Anachnu Modim Lach} and if he reduces {the number of times he says thanksgiving} he should not reduce to less than one, and anyone who reduces to less than one, this is disgraceful. And anyone who concludes Manchil Aratzot {who causes to inherit lands} in the blessing of the land {HaAretz} and Moshia Yisrael {Savior of Israel} in Bonei Yerushalayim, this is disgraceful. And anyone who does not sat bit {milah} and Torah in the blessing of the land {HaAretz} and the kingship of the house of David in Bonei Yerushalayim has not fulfilled his obligation.

The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: What should he conclude in it? Bonei Yerushalayim. Rabbi Yossi bar Yehuda says: Moshia Yisrael UVonei Yerushalayim.

Rabba bar Rav Huna visited the house of the Exilarch. He began {Bonei Yerushalayim} with one and concluded with two - with Moshia Yisrael UVonei Yerushalayim.
Rav Chisda said: Is it greatness to conclude with two {praises}? But we learnt {in a brayta}: Rabbi says: we do not conclude with two.
It is a question. And we conclude that even if one began with Rachem Al Yisrael Amecha {Have Mercy on Your Nation Israel} he concludes with Bonei Yerushalayim, for it is stated in Tehillim 147:2:

ב בּוֹנֵה יְרוּשָׁלִַם ה; נִדְחֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יְכַנֵּס. 2 The LORD doth build up Jerusalem, He gathereth together the dispersed of Israel;
Gufa. {We return to a matter mentioned above, specifically the brayta mentioned above.}
Rabbi says: We do not conclude with two.
Levi asked Rabbi: Al haAretz veAl HaMazon {thus concludes with two}.
The land which produces sustenance.
Al haAretz VeAl HaPeirot?
The land which produces fruits.
Mekadesh Yisrael veHaZemanim?
Israel who sanctify the times.
Mekadesh Yisrael veRoshei Chodoshim?
Israel who sanctifies the heads of months.
Mekadesh HaShabbat veYisrael veHaZemanim veRoshei Chodoshim {here, Shabbat precedes, so you cannot say Israel who sanctifies...}?
He said to him: With the exception of this one.
And why is this different?

{Rashi emends to: This one {Mekadesh HaShabbat} is one {that Hashem is sanctifying Shabbat, Israel, etc.}. Here {by Moshia Yisrael UVonei Yerushalayim} each one is distinct.

However, we have:}
There, each one is written by itself, but here, this one is dependent upon the other.

And for what reason do we not conclude with two? For we do not make mitzvot into bundles.

Rabba bar bar Chana cited Rabbi Yochanan: HaTov veHaMeitiv requires Malchut {mentioning Hashem's kingship}.
What is this coming to tell us? That any blessing that does not have in it Kingship is not a blessing? But Rabbi Yochanan already said this once!
Rabbi Ze'eira said: To tell us that you need two mentions of Kingship. One for itself {for HaTov veHaMeitiv} and one for {the preceding blessing,} Bonei Yerushalayim. {Since that does not conclude with Malchut mentioned. And in fact it is so - we start Baruch Ata Hashem Elokeinu Melech HaOlam... and continues Avinu, Malkeinu...}.
If so, let us do three. One for itself, one for the blessing of the land {HaAretz}, and one for Bonei Yerushalayim. Rather, in the blessing of the land, what is the reason not? For it a blessing juxtaposed to its fellow. And in truth, it should also be that Bonei Yerushalayim should also not need, for it is a blessing juxtaposed to its fellow. However, once he mentions the kingship of David, it is unseemly that he does not mention the kingship of Heaven.

Rav Papa says: {What Rabbi Yochanan meant was that} He needs two mentions of Kingship excluding its own. {indeed, one for the blessing of the land}.

And when he blesses Birchat HaMazon on Shabbat, and erred and did not mention of Shabbat, he says Baruch Asher Natan Menucha LeAmo Yisrael LeOt ULeVrit. Baruch Ata Hashem Mekadesh HaShabbat. {Blessed is He who gave rest to His nation Israel as a sign and a covenant. Baruch Ata Hashem Who sanctifies the Shabbat.}
And if he erred and did not mention Yom Tov, He says Baruch Asher Natan Yamim Tovim LeAmo Yisrael LeSasson ULeSimcha, Baruch Ata Hashem Mekadesh Yisrael veHaZemanim. {Blessed is He who gave good days [holidays] to His nation Israel as a joy and happiness. Baruch Ata Hashem Who Sanctifies Israel and the times. {Or, depending on how you read the conclusion of the preceding interchange between Rabbi and Levi, Who causes Israel to sactify the times.}

And these words are only if he remembered before he began HaTov veHaMeitiv, but if he remembered after he began HaTov veHaMeitiv, he returns to the start. And if he erred and did not mention Rosh Chodesh he says Baruch SheNatan Roshei Chodoshim LeAmo Yisrael {Blessed is he who gave Heads of Months to His Nation Israel}.

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