Wednesday, April 27, 2005

Rif Brachot 35b



{Brachot 47b continued}
And we do not hold so, for since they call him a katan {minor}, even if he is 12 or 9, and he knows to Whom we are blessing, we include him in the zimmun, and so did the Gaon think.

Rav Yehuda the son of Rav Shmuel bar Shelat cited Rav: Nine who ate grain, and one who ate a vegetable, they combine {to 10}. And even if he dipped brine with them or drank one cup, they combine. And even if seven ate grain and three ate vegetables, they combine to {say} Nevareich Leilokeinu {for we add Hashem's name with a mezuman of 10}, but six {who ate grain}, no, for we need a recognizable majority. And these words are specifically to combine to 10, but to fulfill the obligation of the many {that is, to lead the mezuman}, he may not, until he consumed an olive's measure of grain, and the Sages said, specifically to combine to form 10, but to form 3 {the base zimmun}, he does not combine until he has consumed an olive's measure of grain.

{Brachot 48b}
Rav Nachman said: Moshe established for the Israelites the blessing of Hazan {"who sustains," the first blessing} at the time that the manna descended for them. Yehoshua established for them the blessing of HaAretz {"the land," the second blessing} at the time that they entered the land. David and Shlomo established for them Bonei Yerushalayim {"Who builds Jerusalem," the third blessing} - David established {within this blessing} Al Yisrael Amecha veAl Yerushalayim Irecha {for Israel Your nation and for Jerusalem Your city} and Shlomo established {within this blessing} Al HaBayit HaGadol VeHaKadosh SheNikra Shimcha Alav {for the great and holy house upon which Your Name is called}. And HaTov veHaMeitiv {"Who is Good and Beneficent," the fourth blessing} they established in Yavneh because of the slain of Beitar.

The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: The order of Birchat HaMazon is as follows: First is the blessing of Hazan. Second is the blessing of HaAretz. Third, Bonei Yerushalayim. Fourth, HaTov VeHameitiv. And on Shabbat, he begins {the blessing of Bonei Yerushalayim} with Nechama {consolation} and ends with Nechama, and says the sactification of the day {that is, Retzei} in the middle. He begins with Nechama, in that he says "Console us Hashem our God, with the building of Your city," and he concludes with Nechama in that he says "and bring us into it and console us in it, for You are the Master of Consolations. Baruch Ata Hashem Who consoles his nation Israel with the building of Yerushalayim."

They learnt {in a brayta}: Rabbi Eliezer says: Any one who does not say Eretz Chemda Tova Urechava {a desirable, good and spacious land} in the blessing of HaAretz {=Nodeh} has not fulfilled his obligation. Nachum the elder says: he needs to mention within it the covenant {Brit, which we fulfill with the words veAl Britecha SheChatamta Bivsareinu, in Nodeh}. Rabbi Yossi says

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