Thursday, January 04, 2007

Rif Rosh HaShana 8b {Rosh haShana 30a continues; 32a - 32b}


{Rosh haShana, Mishna, 30a continues}
and in the medina {see earlier for definition}, one day. Once the Temple was destroyed, Rabban Yochanan ben Zakkai established that lulav be taken in the medina seven {days} as a remembrance to the Temple, and {also established} that the day of the waving {of the omer offering} should be entirely forbidden {to eat chadash}.

{Rosh haShana 32a}
The order of the blessings {in Shemoneh Esrei}: He says Avot {=elokeinu veilokei avoteinu}, Gevurot {=ata gibor}, Kedushat Hashem {=ata kadosh} and he includes Malchuyot {kingship} with them, and he does not blow; the kudushat hayom and he blows; Zichronot {remembrances} and he blows; Shofarot and he blows; and he says the Avodah {=retzei} and Hodaah {=Modim} and birkat kohanim. These are the words of Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri.
Rabbi Akiva said to him: If he does not blow during Malchuyot, why does he mention them? Rather, he says Avot, Gevurot, Kedushat Hashem, and he combines Malchuyot with Kedushat HaYom and blow; Zichronot and he blows; Shofarot and he blows. And he says Avodah {=retzei}, Hodaah {modim}, and birkat kohanim.

And we establish like Rabbi Akiva over his colleague.

We do not reduce from ten Malchuyot, from ten Zichronot, and from ten Shofarot.
Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri says: If he says three each, he fulfilled.

We do not mention Malchuyot, Zichronot, or Shofarot of punishment.
We begin in Torah and end in Navi {rounding out the tenth}.
Rabbi Yossi said: If he ended in Torah, he fulfilled.

It was a question to us:
These "three" which Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri said -- Three from Torah, three from Neviim, and three from Ketuvim, which are nine, or perhaps one from Torah, one from Navi, and one from Ketuvim, which are three in total from all of them?
And we resolve that if he said three from all of them {in total} he fulfilled -- parallel to Torah, Neviim, and Ketuvim; and some say parallel to Kohanim, Leviim, and Yisraelim.

Rav Hamnuna cited Shmuel: The halacha is like Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri.

And we conclude, at the end of the perek: Rav Chananel said: Once he said ובתורתך כתוב לאמר {=and it is written in Your Torah}, he does not need any more.
And so did Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: Once he said ובתורתך כתוב לאמר {=and it is written in Your Torah}, he does not need any more, whether individually or communally.
And so is the halacha.

{Rosh haShana 32b}
"We do not mention Malchuyot, Zichronot, or Shofarot of punishment":
Zichronot, such as {Tehillim 78:39}:

לט וַיִּזְכֹּר, כִּי-בָשָׂר הֵמָּה; רוּחַ הוֹלֵךְ, וְלֹא יָשׁוּב. 39 So He remembered that they were but flesh, a wind that passeth away, and cometh not again.
{even though in context this is a continuation of vehu rachum, and why Hashem will not punish us!}

Malchuyot, such as {Yechezkel 20:33}:
לג חַי-אָנִי, נְאֻם ה אלקים: אִם-לֹא בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרוֹעַ נְטוּיָה, וּבְחֵמָה שְׁפוּכָה--אֶמְלוֹךְ עֲלֵיכֶם. 33 As I live, saith the Lord GOD, surely with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with fury poured out, will I be king over you;
{and it continues that Hashem will take us out of exile and reckon with us}
And even though Rav Nachman said {regarding this pasuk}: All of this anger, let the All-Merciful One be angry with us, and then take us out {of exile} - even so, since this was said in fury, it is not the way of the world to mention fury at the start of the year.

Shofarot, such as {Hoshea 5:8}
ח תִּקְעוּ שׁוֹפָר בַּגִּבְעָה, חֲצֹצְרָה בָּרָמָה; הָרִיעוּ בֵּית אָוֶן, אַחֲרֶיךָ בִּנְיָמִין. 8 Blow ye the horn in Gibeah, and the trumpet in Ramah; sound an alarm at Beth-aven: 'Behind thee, O Benjamin!'
{continuing: Ephraim shall be desolate in the day of rebuke...}
But if he comes to say Malchuyot, Zichronot, or Shofarot of punishment of idolators {ovdei kochavim, with possible work of censors here}, he may say.
Zichronot such as {Tehillim 137:7}
ז זְכֹר ה, לִבְנֵי אֱדוֹם-- אֵת, יוֹם יְרוּשָׁלִָם:
הָאֹמְרִים, עָרוּ עָרוּ-- עַד, הַיְסוֹד בָּהּ.
7 Remember, O LORD, against the children of Edom the day of Jerusalem; {N}
who said: 'Rase it, rase it, even to the foundation thereof.'
Malchuyot, such as {Tehillim 99:1}
א ה מָלָךְ, יִרְגְּזוּ עַמִּים; יֹשֵׁב כְּרוּבִים, תָּנוּט הָאָרֶץ. 1 The LORD reigneth; let the peoples tremble; He is enthroned upon the cherubim; let the earth quake.
or else {Tehillim 10:16}:
טז ה מֶלֶךְ, עוֹלָם וָעֶד; אָבְדוּ גוֹיִם, מֵאַרְצוֹ. 16 The LORD is King for ever and ever; the nations are perished out of His land.
Shofarot, such as {Zecharia 9:14}:
יד וַיהוָה עֲלֵיהֶם יֵרָאֶה, וְיָצָא כַבָּרָק חִצּוֹ; וַה אלקים בַּשּׁוֹפָר יִתְקָע, וְהָלַךְ בְּסַעֲרוֹת תֵּימָן. 14 And the LORD shall be seen over them, and His arrow shall go forth as the lightning; and the Lord GOD will blow the horn, and will go with whirlwinds of the south.
and juxtaposed to this is:
טו ה צְבָאוֹת, יָגֵן עֲלֵיהֶם, וְאָכְלוּ וְכָבְשׁוּ אַבְנֵי-קֶלַע, וְשָׁתוּ הָמוּ כְּמוֹ-יָיִן; וּמָלְאוּ, כַּמִּזְרָק--כְּזָוִיּוֹת, מִזְבֵּחַ. 15 The LORD of hosts will defend them; and they shall devour, and shall tread down the sling-stones; and they shall drink, and make a noise as through wine; and they shall be filled like the basins, like the corners of the altar.
We do not mention remembrance of an individual, even for good, such as {Nechemia 5:19}:
יט זָכְרָה-לִּי אֱלֹקַי, לְטוֹבָה--כֹּל אֲשֶׁר-עָשִׂיתִי, עַל-הָעָם הַזֶּה. {פ} 19 Remember unto me, O my God, for good, all that I have done for this people.

and {Tehillim 106:4}:
ד זָכְרֵנִי ה, בִּרְצוֹן עַמֶּךָ; פָּקְדֵנִי, בִּישׁוּעָתֶךָ. 4 Remember me, O LORD, when Thou favourest Thy people; O think of me at Thy salvation;
Pikdonot {"rememberings"} are like Zichronot, such as {Bereishit 21:1}
א וַה פָּקַד אֶת-שָׂרָה, כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמָר; וַיַּעַשׂ ה לְשָׂרָה, כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּר. 1 And the LORD remembered Sarah as He had said, and the LORD did unto Sarah as He had spoken.
{who is an individual! the gemara addresses this.}
and such as {Shemot 3:16}:
טז לֵךְ וְאָסַפְתָּ אֶת-זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם ה אֱלֹקֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם נִרְאָה אֵלַי, אֱלֹקֵי אַבְרָהָם יִצְחָק וְיַעֲקֹב, לֵאמֹר: פָּקֹד פָּקַדְתִּי אֶתְכֶם, וְאֶת-הֶעָשׂוּי לָכֶם בְּמִצְרָיִם. 16 Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them: The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, hath appeared unto me, saying: I have surely remembered you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt.
These are the words of Rabbi Yossi. Rabbi Yehuda says: Pikdonot are not like Zichronot.

And even though we establish that {in case of dispute between} Rabbi Yossi and Rabbi Yehuda,

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