Thursday, January 04, 2007

Rif Rosh haShana 8a {Rosh haShana 29a continues; 29b - 30a}


{Rosh haShana 29a continues}
"One who is half servant and half free man":
Rav Nachman said: He does not even cause himself to fulfill.
Ahava son of Rabbi Zera taught {tnei}: All blessings, even though he has already fulfilled, he may enable others to fulfill, except for the blessing on bread and the blessing on wine -- that if he has not already fulfilled, he may enable others to fulfill {by making it}, and if he has already fulfilled, he may not enable others to fulfill.

{Rosh haShana 29b}
Rechava inquired: The blessing on bread on matzah, which is hamotzi, and the blessing on wine of sanctification of the day, which is borei peri hagafen, what? {Are these brachot on the mitzvah or on the hanaah. If the former, he can make the blessing for others, and if the latter, he cannot.} Since it is an obligation, he can be motzi them, or perhaps the blessing is not an obligation.

And we conclude that even though he fulfilled he may be motzi others, for Rav Ashi said: When we were in the house of Rav Pappi, he made kiddush for us, and when his sharecropper, he would bless for him.

The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: A person may not break off a piece of bread {and say hamotzi} for guests unless he eats with them...

To explain: For if he does not eat with them, he has uttered the Name of Heaven in vain.

... but he may break off {and say hamotzi} for his sons and members of his household in order to educate them in mitzvot.

And for Hallel and megillah, even though he has already fulfilled, he can be motzi others.

END PEREK THREE - ra`uhu bet din

The Yom Tov of Rosh HaShana that fell out on Shabbat -- in the Temple they blew but not in the medina {whether this includes Yerushalayim or not is up for debate among Rishonim}.
When the Temple was destroyed, Rabban Yochanan ben Zakkai established that they should blow everywhere there was a bet din.
Rabbi Eliezer said: When Rabban Yochanan ben Zakkai established this, he only established it in Yavneh.
They said to him: Both Yavneh and anyplace which has a bet din.

"In the Temple they blew, but not in the medina":
What is the reason?
Rabba said: All are obligated in blowing of shofar, but not all are experts in blowing of shofar. This is a decree lest he take it in hand and travel to an expert, and carry it four cubits in the public domain. And this is the reason for lulav, and this is the reason for megillah.

{Rosh HaShana 30a}
"Once the Temple was destroyed":
Rav Huna said: And with bet din.
What is the implication of "and with bet din?" Before bet din, to exclude not before bet din, when one should not {blow}.

It was stated also {by Amoraim}:
Rabbi Chiyya bar Gamda cited Rabbi Yossi ben Shaul who cited Rabbi: They only blow during the time when bet din is in session.

Initially, in the Temple the lulav was taken seven {days}

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