Monday, June 06, 2005

Rif Shabbat 14a


{digression to Erechin 14b}
From where?
From the spies {sent to spy out the land of Israel}.

Just as the spies, who said an evil report bad words about trees and rocks {and were punished}, all the more so one who says an evil report regarding his friend.

{Erechin 15a}
Rabbi Yochanan cited Rabbi Yossi ben Zimra: What is meant by what is written (Tehillim 120:3):

ג מַה-יִּתֵּן לְךָ, וּמַה-יֹּסִיף לָךְ-- לָשׁוֹן רְמִיָּה. 3 What shall be given unto thee, and what shall be done more unto thee, thou deceitful tongue?

Hashem said to the tongue: What shall I do to you? All the limbs of a man are vertical, and you lie horizontal. All of a man's limbs are external, and you are internal. And not only that, but I surrounded you with two walls, one of bone and the other of flesh. "What shall be given unto thee, and what shall be done more unto thee, thou deceitful tongue?"

And Rabbi Yochanan cited Rabbi Yossi ben Zimra: Anyone who tells over lashon hara is as if he denied Hashem, for it is said (Tehillim 12:5):

ה אֲשֶׁר אָמְרוּ, לִלְשֹׁנֵנוּ נַגְבִּיר--שְׂפָתֵינוּ אִתָּנוּ: מִי אָדוֹן לָנוּ. 5 Who have said: 'Our tongue will we make mighty; our lips are with us: who is lord over us?'

And Rabbi Yochanan cited Rabbi Yossi ben Zimra: Anyone who tells over lashon hara, skin afflictions come upon him, as is stated (Tehillim 101:5):

ה מלושני (מְלָשְׁנִי) בַסֵּתֶר, רֵעֵהוּ-- אוֹתוֹ אַצְמִית:
גְּבַהּ-עֵינַיִם, וּרְחַב לֵבָב-- אֹתוֹ, לֹא אוּכָל.
5 Whoso slandereth his neighbour in secret, him will I destroy; {N}
whoso is haughty of eye and proud of heart, him will I not suffer.
and it is written there (Vayikra 25:23):

כג וְהָאָרֶץ, לֹא תִמָּכֵר לִצְמִתֻת--כִּי-לִי, הָאָרֶץ: כִּי-גֵרִים וְתוֹשָׁבִים אַתֶּם, עִמָּדִי. 23 And the land shall not be sold in perpetuity; for the land is Mine; for ye are strangers and settlers with Me.
and we translate there {into Aramaic} lechalutin {=perpetuity}, and we learn {in a Mishna}: There is not between a leper in seclusion and a definite {muchlat} leper except for letting the hair grow wild and tearing the garments. {Thus, we see that muchlat, or chalutin can refer to leprosy, and from there we know that atzmit in the first pasuk cited can mean "I will strike with leprosy" rather than "I will destroy."}

And this is what Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: What is meant by what is written (Vayikra 14:2):

ב זֹאת תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת הַמְּצֹרָע, בְּיוֹם טָהֳרָתוֹ: וְהוּבָא, אֶל-הַכֹּהֵן. 2 This shall be the law of the leper in the day of his cleansing: he shall be brought unto the priest.
This is the law of the one who gives someone an evil name {motzi shem ra/metzora}.

Evil speech {lishna bisha = loshon hara}, how so?
One may say: there is fire in this person's house. {This was Rava's version. Abaye however said:}
And if he says it as an evil speech, he says: where is fire to be found except in this person's house, for they are always cooking.

{Erechin 16a}
Rava said: Anything that one would say before he who is being spoken about, it does not have the status of loshon hara.
Abaye said to him: All the more so! He has chutzpa and is saying loshon hara!
He {Rava} said to him: I hold like Rabbi Yossi, for Rabbi Yossi said: In all my days, I have never said something and looked over my shoulder.

Rabba bar Rav Huna said: Any matter which is said before three, there is not to it the status of loshon hara.
What is the reason?
Your friend has a friend, and your friend's friend has a friend {and so the matter will surely come to be known}.

When Rav Dimi came, he said: What is meant by what is written (Mishlei 27:14):

יד מְבָרֵךְ רֵעֵהוּ, בְּקוֹל גָּדוֹל--בַּבֹּקֶר הַשְׁכֵּים: קְלָלָה, תֵּחָשֶׁב לוֹ. 14 He that blesseth his friend with a loud voice, rising early in the morning, it shall be counted a curse to him.
Because he blesses his friend in a loud voice, it is counted a curse to him?!
Such as one who visits his host, who expends much effort upon him, The next day, he {the guest} goes out to the market and says "The All Merciful One should bless So-and-so, who expended all this effort for me," and others hear and go to him as well. {thus, he causes damage}

Rav Dimi learnt {tnei} before Rav Safra: One should never relate his fellow's praises excessively, for from relating his positives, he will come to his negatives.

Rav Shmuel bar Nachmani said: Upon seven main sins, {skin} afflictions come. Upon lashon hara, upon bloodshed, upon vain {shav} oaths, upon illicit sexual relations, upon haughtiness, upon theft, and upon stinginess.

Upon lashon hara - for it is written (Tehillim 101:5):

ה מלושני (מְלָשְׁנִי) בַסֵּתֶר, רֵעֵהוּ-- אוֹתוֹ אַצְמִית:
גְּבַהּ-עֵינַיִם, וּרְחַב לֵבָב-- אֹתוֹ, לֹא אוּכָל.
5 Whoso slandereth his neighbour in secret, him will I destroy; {N}
whoso is haughty of eye and proud of heart, him will I not suffer.
{together with the aformentioned definition of atzmit}

Upon bloodshed - for it is written (Shmuel Bet 3:29)

כט יָחֻלוּ עַל-רֹאשׁ יוֹאָב, וְאֶל כָּל-בֵּית אָבִיו; וְאַל-יִכָּרֵת מִבֵּית יוֹאָב זָב וּמְצֹרָע וּמַחֲזִיק בַּפֶּלֶךְ, וְנֹפֵל בַּחֶרֶב--וַחֲסַר-לָחֶם. 29 let it fall upon the head of Joab, and upon all his father's house; and let there not fail from the house of Joab one that hath an issue, or that is a leper, or that leaneth on a staff, or that falleth by the sword, or that lacketh bread.'

Upon vain {shav = false} oaths - for it is written (Melachim Bet 5:23)

כג וַיֹּאמֶר נַעֲמָן, הוֹאֵל קַח כִּכָּרָיִם; וַיִּפְרָץ-בּוֹ, וַיָּצַר כִּכְּרַיִם כֶּסֶף בִּשְׁנֵי חֲרִטִים וּשְׁתֵּי חֲלִפוֹת בְּגָדִים, וַיִּתֵּן אֶל-שְׁנֵי נְעָרָיו, וַיִּשְׂאוּ לְפָנָיו. 23 And Naaman said: 'Be content, take two talents.' And he urged him, and bound two talents of silver in two bags, with two changes of raiment, and laid them upon two of his servants; and they bore them before him.

and it is written (Melachim Bet 5:27):

כז וְצָרַעַת נַעֲמָן תִּדְבַּק-בְּךָ, וּבְזַרְעֲךָ לְעוֹלָם; וַיֵּצֵא מִלְּפָנָיו, מְצֹרָע כַּשָּׁלֶג. 27 The leprosy therefore of Naaman shall cleave unto thee, and unto thy seed for ever.' And he went out from his presence a leper as white as snow.
Upon illicit secual relations - for it is written (Bereishit 12:17):

יז וַיְנַגַּע יְהוָה אֶת-פַּרְעֹה נְגָעִים גְּדֹלִים, וְאֶת-בֵּיתוֹ, עַל-דְּבַר שָׂרַי, אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם. 17 And the LORD plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai Abram's wife.
Upon haughtiness, for it is written (Divrei HaYamaim Bet 26:16):

טז וּכְחֶזְקָתוֹ, גָּבַהּ לִבּוֹ עַד-לְהַשְׁחִית, וַיִּמְעַל, בַּה' אֱלֹהָיו; וַיָּבֹא אֶל-הֵיכַל ה', לְהַקְטִיר עַל-מִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת. 16 But when he was strong, his heart was lifted up so that he did corruptly, and he trespassed against the LORD his God; for he went into the temple of the LORD to burn incense upon the altar of incense.
And it is written {ibid}:

יט וַיִּזְעַף, עֻזִּיָּהוּ, וּבְיָדוֹ מִקְטֶרֶת, לְהַקְטִיר; וּבְזַעְפּוֹ עִם-הַכֹּהֲנִים, וְהַצָּרַעַת זָרְחָה בְמִצְחוֹ לִפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּבֵית יְהוָה, מֵעַל, לְמִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת. 19 Then Uzziah was wroth; and he had a censer in his hand to burn incense; and while he was wroth with the priests, the leprosy broke forth in his forehead before the priests in the house of the LORD, beside the altar of incense.
Upon theft - for it is written (Vayikra 14:36):

לו וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וּפִנּוּ אֶת-הַבַּיִת, בְּטֶרֶם יָבֹא הַכֹּהֵן לִרְאוֹת אֶת-הַנֶּגַע, וְלֹא יִטְמָא, כָּל-אֲשֶׁר בַּבָּיִת; וְאַחַר כֵּן יָבֹא הַכֹּהֵן, לִרְאוֹת אֶת-הַבָּיִת. 36 And the priest shall command that they empty the house, before the priest go in to see the plague, that all that is in the house be not made unclean; and afterward the priest shall go in to see the house.
They learnt {tna}: he brought in money that was not his - the Kohen shall come and scatter his money.

And stinginess - for it is written {ibid}:

לה וּבָא אֲשֶׁר-לוֹ הַבַּיִת, וְהִגִּיד לַכֹּהֵן לֵאמֹר: כְּנֶגַע, נִרְאָה לִי בַּבָּיִת. 35 then he that owneth the house shall come and tell the priest, saying: 'There seemeth to me to be as it were a plague in the house.'
The learnt in the academy of Rabbi Yishmael: he who designates his house only for himself, that is to say, he does not bring in guests to his house, and does not benefit others from his property.

Is this indeed so?
But Rav Anani bar Sasson said: why was the section regarding priestly garments juxtaposed with the section about sacrifices?
To teach you that just as sacrifices atone, so do the priestly garments atone.
The ketonet {tunic} atoned for bloodshed, as is written (Bereishit 37:31):

לא וַיִּקְחוּ, אֶת-כְּתֹנֶת יוֹסֵף; וַיִּשְׁחֲטוּ שְׂעִיר עִזִּים, וַיִּטְבְּלוּ אֶת-הַכֻּתֹּנֶת בַּדָּם. 31 And they took Joseph's coat, and killed a he-goat, and dipped the coat in the blood;
And the pants atoned for illicit sexual relations, as it is written (Shemot 28:42)

מב וַעֲשֵׂה לָהֶם מִכְנְסֵי-בָד, לְכַסּוֹת בְּשַׂר עֶרְוָה; מִמָּתְנַיִם וְעַד-יְרֵכַיִם, יִהְיוּ. 42 And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover the flesh of their nakedness; from the loins even unto the thighs they shall reach.
The mitre {mitznefet} atones for haughtiness, like Rabbi Chanina - for Rabbi Chanina said: Something which is above {govah} should come and atone for an action of aboveness {haughtiness}.

The sash {avnet} atones for inner thoughts, such as they are, for it is written {ibid}:

ל וְנָתַתָּ אֶל-חֹשֶׁן הַמִּשְׁפָּט, אֶת-הָאוּרִים וְאֶת-הַתֻּמִּים, וְהָיוּ עַל-לֵב אַהֲרֹן, בְּבֹאוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה; וְנָשָׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת-מִשְׁפַּט בְּנֵי-יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל-לִבּוֹ, לִפְנֵי יְהוָה--תָּמִיד.
30 And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth in before the LORD; and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the LORD continually. {S}
{except Rif has vehaya rather than vehayu}

The breastplate {chosen} atones for the judgements, for it is written {ibid}:

טו וְעָשִׂיתָ חֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט, מַעֲשֵׂה חֹשֵׁב--כְּמַעֲשֵׂה אֵפֹד, תַּעֲשֶׂנּוּ; זָהָב תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי, וְשֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר--תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתוֹ. 15 And thou shalt make a breastplate of judgment, the work of the skilful workman; like the work of the ephod thou shalt make it: of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, shalt thou make it.
The ephod atones for idolatry, as it is written (Hoshea 3:4):
ד כִּי יָמִים רַבִּים, יֵשְׁבוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל--אֵין מֶלֶךְ וְאֵין שָׂר, וְאֵין זֶבַח וְאֵין מַצֵּבָה; וְאֵין אֵפוֹד, וּתְרָפִים. 4 For the children of Israel shall sit solitary many days without king, and without prince, and without sacrifice, and without pillar, and without ephod or teraphim;
{teraphim being the idolatry}

The cloak {meil} atoned for lashon hara. Hashem said: something with a voice {for the bells at the bottom of the cloak made noise} should come and atone for an action involving voice.

The tzitz atoned for brazenness, for it is written (Shemot 28:38):

לח וְהָיָה, עַל-מֵצַח אַהֲרֹן, וְנָשָׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת-עֲו‍ֹן הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יַקְדִּישׁוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, לְכָל-מַתְּנֹת קָדְשֵׁיהֶם; וְהָיָה עַל-מִצְחוֹ תָּמִיד, לְרָצוֹן לָהֶם לִפְנֵי ה. 38 And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead, and Aaron shall bear the iniquity committed in the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow, even in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the LORD.
and it is written (Yirmiyah 3:):

ג וַיִּמָּנְעוּ רְבִבִים, וּמַלְקוֹשׁ לוֹא הָיָה; וּמֵצַח אִשָּׁה זוֹנָה הָיָה לָךְ, מֵאַנְתְּ הִכָּלֵם. 3 Therefore the showers have been withheld, and there hath been no latter rain; yet thou hadst a harlot's forehead, thou refusedst to be ashamed.

{and thus, these have been atoned for, so how could they cause skin afflictions?}

It is not a question.
Here is where his actions had an effect, and here is where his actions did not have an {harmful} effect.
If his actions had an effect, skin afflictions come upon him, and if his actions did not have an effect, the meil atones.

Is this indeed so?
But Rabbi Simone cited Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Two things we have not found that they have atonement in sacrifices, and we find they have an atonement via another means, and these are they: bloodshed and lashon hara.

Bloodshed via the egla arufa {the calf whose neck is broken}, and lashon hara via the ketoret {incense}.
For Rabbi Chiyya learnt {in a brayta}: we learn regarding ketoret that it atones, for it is stated (Bemidbar 17:12):

יב וַיִּקַּח אַהֲרֹן כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר מֹשֶׁה, וַיָּרָץ אֶל-תּוֹךְ הַקָּהָל, וְהִנֵּה הֵחֵל הַנֶּגֶף, בָּעָם; וַיִּתֵּן, אֶת-הַקְּטֹרֶת, וַיְכַפֵּר, עַל-הָעָם. 12 And Aaron took as Moses spoke, and ran into the midst of the assembly; and, behold, the plague was begun among the people; and he put on the incense, and made atonement for the people.
And they learnt in the academy of Rabbi Yishmael: Upon what does the ketoret atone? Upon the act of lashon hara. Hashem said: Let the act done in secret {ketoret} come and atone for the act done in secret {lashon hara}.

There is a question {contradiction} of bloodshed on bloodshed {in terms of whether the Kohen's garments or the egla arufa effects the atonement}, and there is a question of lashon hara on lashon hara {whether it is the Kohen's garments or the ketoret}.

Bloodshed upon bloodshed it is not a question. Here {the Kohen's garments} is where it is known who killed him, and here is where it is not known who killed him.
But if it is known who killed him, that person is to be executed!
When it was done deliberately, but without {prior} warning {hatra`a}.
Lashon hara on lashon hara is also not a question. Here is where it was done concealed {and so the ketoret is appropriate}, and here it was done out in the open.

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Why is a leper different, that the Torah says upon him (Vayikra 13:46):

מו כָּל-יְמֵי אֲשֶׁר הַנֶּגַע בּוֹ, יִטְמָא--טָמֵא הוּא: בָּדָד יֵשֵׁב, מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה מוֹשָׁבוֹ.
46 All the days wherein the plague is in him he shall be unclean; he is unclean; he shall dwell alone; without the camp shall his dwelling be. {S}
Hashem said: he caused a division between a man and his wife, and between a man and his friend; therefore, he shall dwell alone.

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Why is a leper different, that the Torah says he should bring (Vayikra 14:4)

ד וְצִוָּה, הַכֹּהֵן, וְלָקַח לַמִּטַּהֵר שְׁתֵּי-צִפֳּרִים חַיּוֹת, טְהֹרוֹת; וְעֵץ אֶרֶז, וּשְׁנִי תוֹלַעַת וְאֵזֹב. 4 then shall the priest command to take for him that is to be cleansed two living clean birds, and cedar-wood, and scarlet, and hyssop.
for his cleansing?
Hashem said: he did an act involving the voice; therefore he should bring a sacrifice with a voi

{Shabbat 34a}

From where do we know these words?
Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The verse states (Iyyov 5:24):

כד וְיָדַעְתָּ, כִּי-שָׁלוֹם אָהֳלֶךָ; וּפָקַדְתָּ נָוְךָ, וְלֹא תֶחֱטָא. 24 And thou shalt know that thy tent is in peace; and thou shalt visit thy habitation, and shalt miss nothing.
{where וְיָדַעְתָּ, כִּי-שָׁלוֹם אָהֳלֶךָ refers to the Shabbat light, וּפָקַדְתָּ נָוְךָ refers to setting up the eruv, and וְלֹא תֶחֱטָא refers to maaser.}

Rabba bar Rav Huna said: Even though the Sages said "three things need be said by a man in his house," he must say them in a pleasant manner, so that they will be accepted.

Rav Ashi said: I did not hear this statement of Rabba bar Rav Huna, but adduced it via logic.

We learnt in the first perek of Gittin {Gittin 6b}: A man should never create at atmosphere of excessive fear {of him} in his house, for behold the Pilegesh of Giveah, her husband put upon her an excessive fear, and many myriads of Israel fell.

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