Thursday, June 02, 2005

Rif Shabbat 13b


{Shabbat 32a continues}
when he has a headache, let him imagine that he is put in irons; when he takes to bed, let him imagine that he ascended the scaffold to be punished. For whoever ascends the scaffold to be punished, if he has great advocates he is saved, but if not he is not saved. And these are man's advocates: repentance and good deeds.

{Shabbat 32b}
They learnt {in a brayta}: Rabbi Natan says: A man's wife dies in punishment for [his] unfulfilled vows, for it is said (Mishlei 22:27):

כז אִם-אֵין-לְךָ לְשַׁלֵּם-- לָמָּה יִקַּח מִשְׁכָּבְךָ, מִתַּחְתֶּיךָ. 27 If thou hast not wherewith to pay, why should he take away thy bed from under thee?
{where "to pay" is taken to mean payment/fulfillment of nedarim, and "thy bed" refers to his wife}

Rabbi says: For the sin of [unfulfilled] vows one's sons and daughters die young, for it is said (Kohelet 5:5):

ה אַל-תִּתֵּן אֶת-פִּיךָ, לַחֲטִיא אֶת-בְּשָׂרֶךָ, וְאַל-תֹּאמַר לִפְנֵי הַמַּלְאָךְ, כִּי שְׁגָגָה הִיא: לָמָּה יִקְצֹף הָאֱלֹהִים עַל-קוֹלֶךָ, וְחִבֵּל אֶת-מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ. 5 Suffer not thy mouth to bring thy flesh into guilt, neither say thou before the messenger, that it was an error; wherefore should God be angry at thy voice, and destroy the work of thy hands?
And what are consider's a man's handiwork? These are his sons and daughters.

The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: Children die as a punishment for [unfulfilled] vows: this is the view of Rabbi Eleazar the son of Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai {our gemara: just Rabbi Eleazar the son of Rabbi Shimon}. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: For the sin of neglect of Torah [study].
And some say: for the sin of neglect of mezuza. And some say: for the sin of neglect of tzitzit.

Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: Be diligent in the miztvah of tzitzit, for he who is observant of fringes will be privileged to be served by two thousand eight hundred servants, for it is said (Zechariah 8:23):

כג כֹּה-אָמַר, ה צְבָאוֹת, בַּיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה, אֲשֶׁר יַחֲזִיקוּ עֲשָׂרָה אֲנָשִׁים מִכֹּל לְשֹׁנוֹת הַגּוֹיִם; וְהֶחֱזִיקוּ בִּכְנַף אִישׁ יְהוּדִי לֵאמֹר, נֵלְכָה עִמָּכֶם--כִּי שָׁמַעְנוּ, אֱלֹקִים עִמָּכֶם.
23 Thus saith the LORD of hosts: In those days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall take hold, out of all the languages of the nations, shall even take hold of the skirt of him that is a Jew, saying: We will go with you, for we have heard that God is with you.' {S}

{since knaf means the corner of the garment, this verse, cited only up to "him that is a Jew," is taken to mean that they will do this because of the kanaf which has tzitzit. 70 languages x 10 mean of each language x 4 corners of his garment = 2800.}

They learnt {in a brayta}: Rabbi Nechemiah says: As a punishment for causeless hate, strife multiplies in a man's house, his wife miscarries, and his sons and daughters die young.

Rabbi Eleazer the son of Rabbi Yehuda says: Because of the neglect of hallah there is no blessing in what is stored, a curse is sent upon prices, and seed is sown and others consume it, for it is said (Vaykira 26:15):

טז אַף-אֲנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה-זֹּאת לָכֶם, וְהִפְקַדְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם בֶּהָלָה אֶת-הַשַּׁחֶפֶת וְאֶת-הַקַּדַּחַת, מְכַלּוֹת עֵינַיִם, וּמְדִיבֹת נָפֶשׁ; וּזְרַעְתֶּם לָרִיק זַרְעֲכֶם, וַאֲכָלֻהוּ אֹיְבֵיכֶם. 16 I also will do this unto you: I will appoint terror over you, even consumption and fever, that shall make the eyes to fail, and the soul to languish; and ye shall sow your seed in vain, for your enemies shall eat it.
{replace the guttural heh with the guttural chet, one of the rules allowed for midrash - subsituting letters from the same place of articulation.}
Read not behala (consumption) but rather be-challah (for {not taking off) challah)

But if they give it, they are blessed, for it is said (Yechezkel 44:30):

ל וְרֵאשִׁית כָּל-בִּכּוּרֵי כֹל וְכָל-תְּרוּמַת כֹּל, מִכֹּל תְּרוּמוֹתֵיכֶם--לַכֹּהֲנִים, יִהְיֶה; וְרֵאשִׁית עֲרִסוֹתֵיכֶם תִּתְּנוּ לַכֹּהֵן, לְהָנִיחַ בְּרָכָה אֶל-בֵּיתֶךָ. 30 And the first of all the first-fruits of every thing, and every heave-offering of every thing, of all your offerings, shall be for the priests; ye shall also give unto the priest the first of your dough, to cause a blessing to rest on thy house.
As a punishment for the neglect of terumoth and tithes the heavens are shut up from pouring down dew and rain, high prices are prevalent, wages are lost, and people pursue a livelihood but cannot attain it, for it is written (Iyyov 24:19):
יט צִיָּה גַם-חֹם, יִגְזְלוּ מֵימֵי-שֶׁלֶג; שְׁאוֹל חָטָאוּ. 19 Drought and heat consume the snow waters; so doth the nether-world those that have sinned.
They learned in the academy of Rabbi Yishmael: On account of the things which I commanded you in summer {that is, teruma and maaser} but ye did them not, the snowy waters shall rob you in winter. But if they render them {teruma and maaser}, they are blessed, for it is said (Malachi 3:10):
י הָבִיאוּ אֶת-כָּל-הַמַּעֲשֵׂר אֶל-בֵּית הָאוֹצָר, וִיהִי טֶרֶף בְּבֵיתִי, וּבְחָנוּנִי נָא בָּזֹאת, אָמַר ה צְבָאוֹת: אִם-לֹא אֶפְתַּח לָכֶם, אֵת אֲרֻבּוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם, וַהֲרִיקֹתִי לָכֶם בְּרָכָה, עַד-בְּלִי-דָי. 10 Bring ye the whole tithe into the store-house, that there may be food in My house, and try Me now herewith, saith the LORD of hosts, if I will not open you the windows of heaven, and pour you out a blessing, that there shall be more than sufficiency.
{and, explaining עַד-בְּלִי-דָי}
Until your lips are exhausted {yibhlu} through saying, 'Enough!' [dai]

For the crime of robbery locusts make invasion, famine is prevalent, and people eat the flesh of their sons and daughters, for it is said (Amos 4:1):

א שִׁמְעוּ הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה, פָּרוֹת הַבָּשָׁן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַר שֹׁמְרוֹן, הָעֹשְׁקוֹת דַּלִּים, הָרֹצְצוֹת אֶבְיוֹנִים; הָאֹמְרֹת לַאֲדֹנֵיהֶם, הָבִיאָה וְנִשְׁתֶּה. 1 Hear this word, ye kine of Bashan, that are in the mountain of Samaria, that oppress the poor, that crush the needy, that say unto their lords: 'Bring, that we may feast.'

{The proof that this causes the aforementioned punishments is in the continuation of the gemara, which the Rif does not quote here.}

{Shabbat 33a}
As a punishment for delay of judgment, perversion of judgment, spoiling of judgment, and neglect of Torah, sword and spoil increase, pestilence and famine come, people eat and are not satisfied, and eat their bread by weight, for it is written (Vayikra 26:25):

כה וְהֵבֵאתִי עֲלֵיכֶם חֶרֶב, נֹקֶמֶת נְקַם-בְּרִית, וְנֶאֱסַפְתֶּם, אֶל-עָרֵיכֶם; וְשִׁלַּחְתִּי דֶבֶר בְּתוֹכְכֶם, וְנִתַּתֶּם בְּיַד-אוֹיֵב. 25 And I will bring a sword upon you, that shall execute the vengeance of the covenant; and ye shall be gathered together within your cities; and I will send the pestilence among you; and ye shall be delivered into the hand of the enemy.

{see the gemara for the actual prooftext, based on this and other psukim}

For the crime of vain oaths, false oaths, profanation of the Divine Name, and the desecration of the Sabbath, wild beasts multiply, [domestic] animals cease, the population decreases, and the roads become desolate, for it is said (Vayikra 26:23):
כג וְאִם-בְּאֵלֶּה--לֹא תִוָּסְרוּ, לִי; וַהֲלַכְתֶּם עִמִּי, קֶרִי. 23 And if in spite of these things ye will not be corrected unto Me, but will walk contrary unto Me;
Read not be`eleh {=in these things}, but rather be`alah {for an oath}, and it is written {in the previous pasuk}:

כב וְהִשְׁלַחְתִּי בָכֶם אֶת-חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה, וְשִׁכְּלָה אֶתְכֶם, וְהִכְרִיתָה אֶת-בְּהֶמְתְּכֶם, וְהִמְעִיטָה אֶתְכֶם; וְנָשַׁמּוּ, דַּרְכֵיכֶם. 22 And I will send the beast of the field among you, which shall rob you of your children, and destroy your cattle, and make you few in number; and your ways shall become desolate.
and it states regarding a false oaths (Vayikra 19:12):

יב וְלֹא-תִשָּׁבְעוּ בִשְׁמִי, לַשָּׁקֶר: וְחִלַּלְתָּ אֶת-שֵׁם אֱלֹקֶיךָ, אֲנִי ה. 12 And ye shall not swear by My name falsely, so that thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD.
and by profanation of the Divine Name, it is written (Vayikra 22:2):

ב דַּבֵּר אֶל-אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל-בָּנָיו, וְיִנָּזְרוּ מִקָּדְשֵׁי בְנֵי-יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְלֹא יְחַלְּלוּ, אֶת-שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי--אֲשֶׁר הֵם מַקְדִּשִׁים לִי, אֲנִי ה. 2 Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, that they separate themselves from the holy things of the children of Israel, which they hallow unto Me, and that they profane not My holy name: I am the LORD.
{Rif actually has velo techalelu}
and regarding desecration of the Shabbat, it is written (Shemot 31:14):

יד וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם, אֶת-הַשַּׁבָּת, כִּי קֹדֶשׁ הִוא, לָכֶם; מְחַלְלֶיהָ, מוֹת יוּמָת--כִּי כָּל-הָעֹשֶׂה בָהּ מְלָאכָה, וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִקֶּרֶב עַמֶּיהָ. 14 Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore, for it is holy unto you; every one that profaneth it shall surely be put to death; for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people.
And we learn "profanation" "profanation" from false oaths.
{That is, the punishment for all these profanations is learned via the parallel occurrence of this word "profane" from a false oath - that is, wild beasts and all.}

Through the crime of bloodshed the Temple was destroyed and the Shechinah departed from Israel, as it is written (Bemidbar 35:33):

לג וְלֹא-תַחֲנִיפוּ אֶת-הָאָרֶץ, אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם בָּהּ, כִּי הַדָּם, הוּא יַחֲנִיף אֶת-הָאָרֶץ; וְלָאָרֶץ לֹא-יְכֻפַּר, לַדָּם אֲשֶׁר שֻׁפַּךְ-בָּהּ, כִּי-אִם, בְּדַם שֹׁפְכוֹ. 33 So ye shall not pollute the land wherein ye are; for blood, it polluteth the land; and no expiation can be made for the land for the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it.

Hence, if ye do defile it, ye will not inhabit it and I will not dwell in its midst.

As a punishment for illicit sexual relations, idolatry, and non-observance of the years of shemita and Yovel, exile comes to the world, they [the Jews] are exiled, and others come and dwell in their place, for it is said (Vayikra 18:28):

כח וְלֹא-תָקִיא הָאָרֶץ אֶתְכֶם, בְּטַמַּאֲכֶם אֹתָהּ, כַּאֲשֶׁר קָאָה אֶת-הַגּוֹי, אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵיכֶם. 28 that the land vomit not you out also, when ye defile it, as it vomited out the nation that was before you.
As a punishment for obscenity, troubles multiply, cruel decrees are proclaimed afresh, the youth of Israel's enemies {a euphemism for the youth of Israel}, and the fatherless and widows cry out and are not answered; for it is said (Yeshaya 9:16):

טז עַל-כֵּן עַל-בַּחוּרָיו לֹא-יִשְׂמַח אֲדֹנָי, וְאֶת-יְתֹמָיו וְאֶת-אַלְמְנוֹתָיו לֹא יְרַחֵם--כִּי כֻלּוֹ חָנֵף וּמֵרַע, וְכָל-פֶּה דֹּבֵר נְבָלָה; בְּכָל-זֹאת לֹא-שָׁב אַפּוֹ, וְעוֹד יָדוֹ נְטוּיָה. 16 Therefore the Lord shall have no joy in their young men, neither shall He have compassion on their fatherless and widows; for every one is ungodly and an evil-doer, and every mouth speaketh wantonness. For all this His anger is not turned away, but His hand is stretched out still.
What is meant by "but His hand is stretched out still?"
Rav Nachman bar Abba cited Rav {in our gemara, this is stated by Rav Chanan bar Rabba}: All know for what purpose a bride enters the bridal canopy, yet against whomsoever who speaks obscenely [thereof], even if a sentence of seventy years' happiness had been sealed for him, it is reversed for evil.

And Rabbar bar Rav Shela said {in our gemara: said in the name of Rav Chisda}: He who puts his mouth to obscenity, Gehenna is made deep for him, as it is said (Mishlei 22:14):

יד שׁוּחָה עֲמֻקָּה, פִּי זָרוֹת; זְעוּם ה, יפול- (יִפָּל-) שָׁם. 14 The mouth of strange women is a deep pit: he that is abhorred of the LORD shall fall therein.
{which is taken as a deep pit for foreign=obscene speech}

Rav Nachbar bar Yitzchak said: Also [for] one who hears and is silent, for it is said {at the end of that pasuk}:

יד שׁוּחָה עֲמֻקָּה, פִּי זָרוֹת; זְעוּם ה, יפול- (יִפָּל-) שָׁם. 14 The mouth of strange women is a deep pit: he that is abhorred of the LORD shall fall therein.
Rav Oshaya said: He who devotes himself to sin - wounds and bruises break out over him, as it is said (Mishlei 20:30):

ל חַבֻּרוֹת פֶּצַע, תמריק (תַּמְרוּק) בְּרָע; וּמַכּוֹת, חַדְרֵי-בָטֶן. 30 Sharp wounds cleanse away evil; so do stripes that reach the inward parts.
{taken as: Stripes and wounds are for him that devoteth himself to evil.}

The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: There are four signs. [i] Dropsy is a sign of sin; [ii] jaundice is a sign of causeless hatred; [iii] poverty is a sign of conceit; croup {or perhaps Diphtheria} is a sign of slander.

We learn in masechet Sota {Sota daf 42a}:
Rav Chisda cited Rav Yirmiya {in our girsa, this was simply stated by Rabbi Yirmiya bar Abba}: Four classes will not receive the presence of the Shechinah: the class of scoffers, the class of flatterers, the class of slanderers, and the class of liars. {our gemara has a different order}

The class of liars - for it is written (Tehillim 101:7):

ז לֹא-יֵשֵׁב, בְּקֶרֶב בֵּיתִי-- עֹשֵׂה רְמִיָּה:
דֹּבֵר שְׁקָרִים-- לֹא-יִכּוֹן, לְנֶגֶד עֵינָי.
7 He that worketh deceit shall not dwell within my house; {N}
he that speaketh falsehood shall not be established before mine eyes.

The class of scoffers - for it is written (Hoshea 7:5):

ה יוֹם מַלְכֵּנוּ, הֶחֱלוּ שָׂרִים חֲמַת מִיָּיִן; מָשַׁךְ יָדוֹ, אֶת-לֹצְצִים. 5 On the day of our king the princes make him sick with the heat of wine, he stretcheth out his hand with scorners.
{taken as: He distanced them}

The class of flatterers - for it is written (Iyyov 13:16):

טז גַּם-הוּא-לִי לִישׁוּעָה: כִּי-לֹא לְפָנָיו, חָנֵף יָבוֹא. 16 This also shall be my salvation, that a hypocrite cannot come before Him.
The class of slanderers - for it is written (Tehillim 5:5):

ה כִּי, לֹא אֵל חָפֵץ רֶשַׁע אָתָּה: לֹא יְגֻרְךָ רָע. 5 For Thou art not a God that hath pleasure in wickedness; evil shall not sojourn with Thee.

In Your dwelling evil shall not dwell.

And we learn in Erechin {daf 14b}:
They learnt {in a brayta}: Rabbi Eliezer ben Parta said: Come and see how great the power of

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