Monday, May 28, 2007

Rif Yevamot 7a {Yevamot 25b; 26a; 25b; Yerushalmi; 26a} Chacham With Vested Interest; Collusion on Behalf of Others


{Yevamot 25b}

החכם שאסר את האשה בנדר על בעלה הרי זו לא ישאנה מיאנה או שחלצה בפניו ישאנה מפני שהוא בית דין:
וכולן שהיו להם נשים ומתו מותרות לינשא להן וכולן שנישאו לאחרים ומתו או נתגרשו מותרות לינשא להן וכולן מותרות לבניהן ולאחיהן:
If a chacham forbids a woman who took a vow on her husband {in that the husband did not nullify her vow and she asked the chacham to do so but he could not find an opening of her "regret" to cancel it}, he {the chacham} may not marry her himself.
If he presides over her "refusal" {from marriage when she was a minor} or his chalitza, he may marry her, for he was {one of} Bet Din.

{Yavmot 26a}
And all of these {the chacham, the witness to his death, and the messenger bringing the get} if they had wives {at the time} and they {the wives} died, they are permitted to marry them. And all of them, if they {the freed women} married other people, and they {those other people} died or divorced, they are permitted to marry them. And all of them are permitted to their sons and their brothers.

{Yevamot 25b}
מתני' דקתני לא ישאנה ביחיד מומחה דקיימא לן דהפרת נדרים ביחיד מומחה וכיון דיחיד הוא אתי לידי חשדא ולפיכך לא ישאנה אבל בי דינא דבי תלתא לא חשידי
כדתנן מיאנה או שחלצה בפניו ישאנה מפני שהוא ב"ד
ולאו דוקא ב"ד אלא אפילו תרי נמי לא חשידי
דתניא עדים החתומים על שדה מקח ועל גט לא חששו חכמים על דבר זה אלא אם רצה אחד מן העדים לקנות אותה שדה או לישא אותה אשה הרשות בידו ולא חיישינן לחשדא
והאי דקתני במתני' מפני שהוא ב"ד קמשמע לן דמיאון בשלשה לאפוקי ממאן דאמר מיאון בשנים ולית הלכתא הכין דקיימא לן מיאון בשנים כדאיפסיקא הלכתא בהדיא בפרק אין ממאנין [אלא ארוסות]:
The Mishna which taught "he may not marry her" deals with an individual expert {in vows}, for it is established to us that nullification of vows is via an individual expert, and since he is an individual, he comes to the state of suspicious, and therefore he should not marry her, but a bet Din which is composed of three is not suspect. As we learn {in the Mishna}, "if she refused or underwent chalitza {before him} he may marry her, for he is Bet Din." And not specifically Bet Din, but even two as well are not suspect. For we learnt {in a brayta}: Witnesses signed on a bought field and on a bill of divorce, the Sages do not worry about suspicion {collusion} on this matter , but rather if one of the witnesses wishes to purchase this field or to marry this woman, the permission is in his hand, and we do not worry about collusion.
And this that they learnt in the Mishna "because he is Bet Din," this informs us that "refusal" is done with three, to differ with the one who says the refusal is performed with two. And the halacha is not so, for it is established to us that refusal is with two, as we explicitly rule the halacha in perek ain memaanin ela arusot.

ירושלמי שאין שנים מצויין לחטוא מפני אחד:
Because two are not accustomed to sin on behalf of one.

וכולן מותרות לבניהן ולאחיהן
שאין אדם מצוי לחטוא לא מפני בנו ולא מפני אחיו איבעיא להו כנם מהו שיוציא ואסיקנא משמיה דרב אשי כנם אינו מוציא דברננה לא מפקינן:
"And all of them are permitted to their {=the chacham, witness, or agent's} sons and brothers":
For a person does not commonly sin for the sake of his son or his brother. It was a question to them: If he {the chacham et. al.} married them, must he divorce? And we conclude in the name of Rav Ashi that if he married he need not divorce, for we do not cause them to go out {divorce} because of "singing" {renana, what people will say}.

{Yevamot 26a}
וכולן שהיו להן נשים ומתו מתו אין נתגרשו לא והתניא אפילו נתגרשו מותרות לינשא להן לא קשיא הא דהוי קטטה הא דלא הוי קטטה ואיבעית אימא הא והא דלא הוי קטטה הא דארגיל הוא הא דארגילה היא:
"And all of them, if they had wives and they {=the wives} died...":
If they died, yes, {implying} but if they were divorced, no. But they learnt {in a brayta}: Even if they divorced they are permitted to marry them!
It is no contradiction. Here is where there was {previous} discord, and here where there was no {previous} discord. And if you want I will say that in both cases, there was no {previous} discord, but here is where he is accustomed {to start the fight, thus we suspect he is looking for a pretext to divorce} while here is where she {his now ex-wife} is accustomed.

וכולן מותרות לבניהן ולאחיהן וכ"ש לאביהן משום דבזיז מיניה פירוש מתבייש מיניה:
"And all of them {the women} are permitted to their {=the chacham's, etc.} sons and brothers":
And certainly their fathers, for he is shy before him.
To explain, he is embarrassed from him.

ומ"ש מהא דתניא הנטען מן האשה אסור באמה ובבתה ובאחותה נשי לגבי נשי שכיחן דאזלן גברי לגבי גברי לא שכיחי דאזלי אי נמי נשי דלא אסירא שכיבתן אהדדי לא קפדן אהדדי גברי דאסירא שכיבתן אהדדי קפדי אהדדי:
And how does this differ from this which they learnt {in a brayta}: One who is suspected {of adultery} with a woman is forbidden to her mother, daughter, and sister? {under the suspicion that this marriage is to bring him closer to his mistress}
Women are accustomed to frequent/visit other women, but men are not accustomed to visit other men. Alternatively, women, whose intercourse does not prohibit the other are not particular {to object to sharing a mate}, but men, whose intercourse forbids other men, are particular about one another.

1 comment:

Rabbi Richard Wolpoe said...

How do I e-mail you re: Alfasi on Berachot re: brahcah acharona on rice/