Monday, May 28, 2007

Rif Yevamot 6b {Yevamot 25a - b} Rumors; One Witness; Agent Witnesses With Vested Interest


{Yevamot 25a}

לא קשיא בקלא דפסיק עבדינן כרב ולא מפקינן לה אלא בעדי טומאה ובקלא דלא פסיק עבדינן כרבי ומפקינן לה בעדי דבר מכוער
It is no contradiction. By a rumor which ends, we act in accordance with Rav, and do not cause her to get divorced unless with witnesses of defilement, and with a rumor which does not end, we act in accordance with Rabbi and cause her to get divorced even with witnesses to an "ugly" matter.

וקלא דלא פסיק עד כמה
אמר אביי אמרה לי אם דומי מתא יומא ופלגא
ולא אמרן אלא דלא פסיק ביני וביני אבל פסק ביני ביני הא פסק
והוא דפסק שלא מחמת יראה אבל פסק מחמת יראה כמה דלא פסק דאמי דמחמת יראה הוא דפסק
ולא אמרן אלא היכא דליכא אויבים דמפקי להו לקלא עליה מעיקרא אבל היכא דאיכא אויבים לנטען דמפקי ליה לקלא עליה מעיקרא לאו קלא הוא דאמרינן אויבים הוא דקא מפקי ליה לקלא
And a rumor which does not end, until when?
Abaye said: She told me: If a town rumor, a day and a half.
And we only say this where there was no break in the meantime, but if there was a break in the meantime, it is ended.
And this is where it ended not because of fear {intimidation}, but if it ended because of fear, it is as if did not end, for it ended only because of fear.
And we only say this where there are no enemies who would put out this rumor initially, but if the suspected has enemies who would put out this rumor upon him initially, it is not a rumor, for we say that it was the enemies who put out the rumor.

ושמעינן מהא דתניא בד"א בשאין לה בנים דהיכא דאית לה בנים מן הנטען אע"ג דאיכא עדים בדבר המכוער לא מפקינן לה מיניה אבל אי איכא עדי טומאה שזינתה עמו כשהיא תחת בעלה מפקינן לה מיניה ואפילו יש לו בנים
והני מילי מבועל שהוא הנטען אבל מבעל עצמו לא מפקינן לה אלא בעדי טומאה בין יש לה בנים בין אין לה בנים
And we deduce from that which they learnt {in a brayta}, "where are these words said? where she has no children," that when she has children from the suspected {after they got married}, even though there are witnesses to the "ugly" matter, we do not cause her to become divorced from him, but if there are witnesses to defilement, that she had illicit relations with him when she was with her {first} husband, we cause her to become divorced from him, even if she had children.
And these words are from the adulterer {who she subsequently married}, who is the suspected one, but from the {initial} husband himself we do not cause her to be divorced unless with witnesses to defilement, whether she has children or does not have children.

כדגרסינן בקדושין בפרק האומר לחבירו איבעיא להו זינתה אשתו בעד אחד מהו אמר רבא הוה דבר שבערוה ואין דבר שבערוה פחות משני עדים
והיכי דאמי עדי טומאה
כדגרסינן בס"פ כיצד העדים נעשין זוממין ורבנן היכי דייני כשמואל דאמר שמואל במנאפים משיראו כמנאפין ובכלאים עד שיכניס כמכחול בשפופרת אבל במנאפין לא בעינן עד שיראו שהכניס כמכחול בשפופרת וכן הלכה:
As we learn in Kiddushin in perek haOmer leChaveiro:
It was a question to them: If there was only a single witness that his wife had relations with another, what is the law? Rava said: This is a matter of illicit relations, and ascertaining about illicit relations is with no less than two witnesses.

And how so witnesses of defilement? As we learn at the end of perek Keitzad haEdim Naasim Zomemim {Bava Metzia 91a}: And the Sages, how do they rule? Like Shmuel -- for Shmuel said: For adulterers, until they appear like adulterers, and by {testimony that he assisted in mixing two species of animal} until they see him place the painting stick in the tube. But by adulterers, we do not require that they see that he places the painting stick in the tube. And so is the halacha.

ואם הוציא אותה בעלה בדבר מכוער והלכה ונישאת לאחר ואפסקא ההוא אחר לקלא ובתר הכין גירשה לא תנשא לההוא נטען לכתחלה ואם נשאת (וכנסה) לא תצא
And if her husband divorces her because of an "ugly" matter and she goes and marries another person {not the suspected one}, and while with that other one the rumor ended, and after that he {the second one} divorces her, she may not marry the suspected one ab initio, and if she marries him, she does not go out.

שלח ליה רבה בריה דרב הונא לרבה בריה דרב נחמן ילמדנו רבינו הא דתנן המוציא את אשתו משום שם רע לא יחזיר ומשום נדר לא יחזיר אם חזר וכנס מהו שיוציא
ואסיקנא אינו מוציא דלא דמי לנטען דנטען כיון שכנס אלומי אלמיה לקליה ולפיכך יוציא אבל במחזיר את אשתו אמרי קים ליה לקליה דליתיה
Rabba son of Rav Huna sent to Rabba son son Rav Nachman: Will our master teach us: This that we learnt {in the Mishna} that if one sends out {divorces} his wife because of a bad reputation {accusations of adultery} he should not take her back; and because of a vow, he should not take her back; and if he took her back and married her, should he send her out?
And we conclude that he does not send her out, for it is not comparable to the suspected out, for the suspected one, since he married her, he strengthens the rumor, and therefore he must divorce her. But when one takes back his wife, they will say that it was established for him that the rumor was false.

המביא גט ממדינת הים ואמר בפני נכתב ובפ"נ לא ישא את אשתו מת הרגתיו הרגנוהו לא ישא את אשתו ר"י אומר הרגתיו לא תנשא אשתו הרגנוהו תנשא אשתו:
If one brings a bill of divorce from overseas {=outside Eretz Yisrael} and says "before me it was written and before me it was signed," he may not marry his {the one who sent the get's} wife.
"He died," "I killed him," "we killed him," he may not marry his wife.
Rabbi Yehuda said: If he says "I killed him" his wife may not be married {to anyone}, but if "We killed him," his wife may be married.

טעמא דממדינת הים דעליה קא סמכינן אבל מא"י דלאו עליה קא סמכינן ישא את אשתו:
The reason is that he came from overseas, for we thus rely upon him, but from the land of Israel, he {the witness as to the divorce document} may marry his {the sender of the get's} wife.

מת הרגתיו הרגנוהו לא ישא את אשתו:
הוא ניהו דלא ישא את אשתו אבל לאחר תנשא ולא אמרי' רשע הוא והתורה אמרה אל תשת ידך עם רשע [להיות] עד
דקי"ל כרבא דאמר אדם קרוב אצל עצמו ואין אדם משים עצמו רשע וגזלן דאורייתא פסול לעדות אשה אבל גזלן דדבריהם כשר לעדות אשה

""He died," "I killed him," "we killed him," he may not marry his wife.":
It is he who may not marry his wife, but to another she may get married. And we do not say that he is an evildoer and the Torah said {Shemot 23:1}
א לֹא תִשָּׂא, שֵׁמַע שָׁוְא; אַל-תָּשֶׁת יָדְךָ עִם-רָשָׁע, לִהְיֹת עֵד חָמָס. 1 Thou shalt not utter a false report; put not thy hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness.
for we have established like Rava who said that a man is a relative in respect to himself and {therefore} a man may not make himself into an evildoer {by his own testimony},
{Yevamot 25b}
and a Biblical{ly considered} robber is invalid for testimony in regards to a woman{'s marriage} but a robber from Rabbinic law is valid for testimony in regards to a woman{'s marriage}.

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