Friday, December 22, 2006

Rif Rosh HaShana 4b {Rosh haShana 17a continues; 17b}


{Rosh haShana 17a continues}
Rava said: Anyone who passes on his middot {that he does not insist on exacting middah kineged middah to those who wrong him}, he gets a pass for all his sins, for it is stated {Micha 7:18}:

יח מִי אֵל כָּמוֹךָ, נֹשֵׂא עָו‍ֹן וְעֹבֵר עַל פֶּשַׁע, לִשְׁאֵרִית, נַחֲלָתוֹ: לֹא הֶחֱזִיק לָעַד אַפּוֹ, כִּי חָפֵץ חֶסֶד הוּא. 18 Who is a God like unto Thee, that pardoneth the iniquity, and passeth by the transgression of the remnant of His heritage? He retaineth not His anger for ever, because He delighteth in mercy.
To whom is He נֹשֵׂא עָו‍ֹן? To he who is עֹבֵר עַל פֶּשַׁע.

{Rosh HaShana 17b}
{Shemot 34:6}
ו וַיַּעֲבֹר ה עַל-פָּנָיו, וַיִּקְרָא, ה ה, אֵל רַחוּם וְחַנּוּן--אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם, וְרַב-חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת. 6 And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed: 'The LORD, the LORD, God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth;
Rabbi Yochanan said: If not for the fact that this is a written verse, it would be impossible to say it. This teaches that Hashem wrapped himself up {as if in a tallit} like a shliach tzibbur and showed himself to Moshe on Sinai, and said to him, "any time Israel sins, they may do before me like this Order {seder} and I will forgive them."

Rav Yehuda cited Rav: A covenant was established regarding the 13 Attributes that {after mentioning them in the prayer of their fasts} they will not return empty. For it is written {a few pesukim later in Shemot 34:10}:
י וַיֹּאמֶר, הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי כֹּרֵת בְּרִית, נֶגֶד כָּל-עַמְּךָ אֶעֱשֶׂה נִפְלָאֹת, אֲשֶׁר לֹא-נִבְרְאוּ בְכָל-הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל-הַגּוֹיִם; וְרָאָה כָל-הָעָם אֲשֶׁר-אַתָּה בְקִרְבּוֹ אֶת-מַעֲשֵׂה יְהוָה, כִּי-נוֹרָא הוּא, אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי, עֹשֶׂה עִמָּךְ. 10 And He said: 'Behold, I make a covenant; before all thy people I will do marvels, such as have not been wrought in all the earth, nor in any nation; and all the people among which thou art shall see the work of the LORD that I am about to do with thee, that it is tremendous.
And Rabbi Yochanan said: Repentance is great in that it tears up the decree upon a man.
For it is written {Yeshaya 6:10}
י הַשְׁמֵן לֵב-הָעָם הַזֶּה, וְאָזְנָיו הַכְבֵּד וְעֵינָיו הָשַׁע: פֶּן-יִרְאֶה בְעֵינָיו וּבְאָזְנָיו יִשְׁמָע, וּלְבָבוֹ יָבִין וָשָׁב--וְרָפָא לוֹ. 10 Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.'
What is the thing that requires healing? Say that this is the decree upon a man.

They posed a contradiction: If he repented in between {Rosh haShana and Yom Kippur} he is forgiven. If he did not repent in between, even if he brought all the rams of Nevayot in the world he is not forgiven.

{This is a reference to Yeshaya 60:7}
ז כָּל-צֹאן קֵדָר יִקָּבְצוּ לָךְ, אֵילֵי נְבָיוֹת יְשָׁרְתוּנֶךְ; יַעֲלוּ עַל-רָצוֹן מִזְבְּחִי, וּבֵית תִּפְאַרְתִּי אֲפָאֵר. 7 All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered together unto thee, the rams of Nebaioth shall minister unto thee; they shall come up with acceptance on Mine altar, and I will glorify My glorious house.

This is no question. Here is by the individual and here is by the community. The decree upon an individual is not ripped up, but the decree upon the community is ripped up.

One verse says {Yirmiyahu 4:14}:
יד כַּבְּסִי מֵרָעָה לִבֵּךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַם, לְמַעַן תִּוָּשֵׁעִי: עַד-מָתַי תָּלִין בְּקִרְבֵּךְ, מַחְשְׁבוֹת אוֹנֵךְ. 14 O Jerusalem, wash thy heart from wickedness, that thou mayest be saved. How long shall thy baleful thoughts lodge within thee?
and another verse says {that it will not work, in Yirmiyahu 2:22}:
כב כִּי אִם-תְּכַבְּסִי בַּנֶּתֶר, וְתַרְבִּי-לָךְ בֹּרִית--נִכְתָּם עֲו‍ֹנֵךְ לְפָנַי, נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה. 22 For though thou wash thee with nitre, and take thee much soap, yet thine iniquity is marked before Me, saith the Lord GOD.
Is it not that this {where "washing" works} is before the issuing of the decree and this is after the issuing of the decree?
No. Both of these are after the issuing of the decree, and it is no question. Here {where it does not work} is by a decree accompanied by an oath, and here is by a decree unaccompanied by an oath.
As Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel cited Rabbi Yonatan: How is it known that a decree accompanied by an oath is not torn up? For it is stated {I Shmuel 3:14, where Hashem is talking to Shmuel}:
יד וְלָכֵן נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי, לְבֵית עֵלִי: אִם-יִתְכַּפֵּר עֲו‍ֹן בֵּית-עֵלִי, בְּזֶבַח וּבְמִנְחָה--עַד-עוֹלָם. 14 And therefore I have sworn unto the house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli's house shall not be expiated with sacrifice nor offering for ever.'
Rava said: with sacrifice and with offering it will not be expiated. But it will be expiated with words of Torah.

Rabbi Yitzchak said: Crying out {tze'aka} is good {=works} for man, whether before the issuing of the decree or after the issuing of the decree.

One verse states {Devarim 4:7}:
ז כִּי מִי-גוֹי גָּדוֹל, אֲשֶׁר-לוֹ אֱלֹהִים קְרֹבִים אֵלָיו, כַּה' אֱלֹקֵינוּ, בְּכָל-קָרְאֵנוּ אֵלָיו. 7 For what great nation is there, that hath God so nigh unto them, as the LORD our God is whensoever we call upon Him?
{stating that God is near whenever we call upon him}
and one verse states {Yeshaya 55:6}:
ו דִּרְשׁוּ ה, בְּהִמָּצְאוֹ; קְרָאֻהוּ, בִּהְיוֹתוֹ קָרוֹב. 6 Seek ye the LORD while He may be found, call ye upon Him while He is near;
{implying that there are only specific times when He is near, and we should seek Him and call Him then}
There {when there are only specific times} is by the individual.
And the individual, when?
Rav Nachman cited Rabba bar Avuah: These are the 10 days between Rosh haShana and Yom Kippur.

"On Rosh HaShana all those who come to the world {humans} pass before him like benei maron":
What is meant by benei maron?
So did they translate: kivnei imarna = like sheep {in Aramaic}.
Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: Like the path up to Bet Charon. {which was very narrow such that only one person could ascend at a time.}

Messengers were sent out for the following six months:
for Nissan, on account of Pesach;
for Av, on account of the fast;
for Elul, on account of the New Year;
for Tishri, on account of appointing the order of the (remaining) festivals {=Succot};
for Kislev, on account of Chanukka;
for Adar, on account of Purim;
When the Temple was in existence also for Iyyar, on account of Pesach Sheni.

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