Friday, May 12, 2006

Rif Pesachim 26a {Pesachim 116b continues; 117b - 118a}


{Pesachim 116b continues}
Rabbi Akiva says: {he should conclude as follows:} So should Hashem our God bring us to other seasons and festivals which come to us in peace, happy in the building of Your city, and joyous in Your service, and we shall eat there from the Pesach offerings and from the zevachim whose blood reaches the corner of Your altar in favor, and we will thank you with a new song upon our redemption and the redemption of our souls. Baruch Ata Hashem Who Has Redeemed Israel.

And we establish like Rabbi Akiva.

Rava said: And he must say {Devarim 6:23}:

כג וְאוֹתָנוּ, הוֹצִיא מִשָּׁם--לְמַעַן, הָבִיא אֹתָנוּ, לָתֶת לָנוּ אֶת-הָאָרֶץ, אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֵינוּ. 23 And He brought us out from thence, that He might bring us in, to give us the land which He swore unto our fathers.
And Rava said: He must lift the matza; he must lift the maror; the meat he need not lift, lest they say "this meat for the Pesach" {meaning in memory of the korban Pesach} and it will appear as if eating sacrifices outside the Temple. And he concludes with Geulah.

{Presumably modifying the Mishna about the three things he must say - this is an additional thing he must say (and we indeed say this verse after the three things, in the paragraph starting Chayav Adam Lir`ot), and furthermore, as he says these three things he should lift it up, and finally, he should have this concluding Geulah as spelled out by Rabbi Akiva.}

{Pesachim 117b}
Rava said: Of {the blessing after} the reading of Shema and Hallel, "Who Redeemed Israel." {Ga`al = past tense} Of the Shemoneh Esrei {of weekdays, in the blessing of Re`ei Na BeAnyeinu, the ending is} "Who Redeems Israel" {Goel = Present Tense}.
What is the reason? They {Shemoneh Esrei} are mercy. {and thus as a request for mercy should be in present tense}

Rabbi Zera said: In Kiddush, it is "who has sanctified us with His commandments," while in Shemoneh Esrei, it is "Sanctify us with Your commandments." What is the reason? They are mercy.

Rav Acha bar Yaakov said: And he needs to mention the Exodus from Egypt in the kiddush of the day - it is written here {Devarim 16:3}:
ג לֹא-תֹאכַל עָלָיו חָמֵץ, שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל-עָלָיו מַצּוֹת לֶחֶם עֹנִי: כִּי בְחִפָּזוֹן, יָצָאתָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם--לְמַעַן תִּזְכֹּר אֶת-יוֹם צֵאתְךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם, כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ. 3 Thou shalt eat no leavened bread with it; seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread therewith, even the bread of affliction; for in haste didst thou come forth out of the land of Egypt; that thou mayest remember the day when thou camest forth out of the land of Egypt all the days of thy life.
{emphasis on the word tizkor}
and it is written there {Shemot 20:7}:
ז זָכוֹר אֶת-יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, לְקַדְּשׁוֹ. 7 Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
{and the zachor is a source for making mention of the Shabbat day - that is kiddush. Thus, all days of Shabbat, which in general has the connotation of holy days of rest, including Yom Tov, one must make mention of the Exodus from Egypt, which has tizkor written by it.
Perhaps one could suggest the following alternative - Rav Acha bar Yaakov is only speaking of kiddush for Pesach, and is noting the word tizkor and interpreting it as zachor is used for Shabbat - in kiddush. Thus, there is an obligation within kiddush hayom of Pesach to make mention of the Exodus.}

Rabba bar Shela said: In Shemoneh Esrei, {the 15th blessing ends} Matzmiach Yeshua {Who causes salvation to spring forth}. In the {third of the four blessings after the} haftara {which has similar content it ends}, Magen David {the Shield of David}.

{Shmuel II 7:9}
ט וָאֶהְיֶה עִמְּךָ, בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר הָלַכְתָּ, וָאַכְרִתָה אֶת-כָּל-אֹיְבֶיךָ, מִפָּנֶיךָ; וְעָשִׂתִי לְךָ שֵׁם גָּדוֹל, כְּשֵׁם הַגְּדֹלִים אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ. 9 And I have been with thee whithersoever thou didst go, and have cut off all thine enemies from before thee; and I will make thee a great name, like unto the name of the great ones that are in the earth.
Rav Yosef taught: this is that we say {the blessing} "Magen David."
{The "great ones that are in the earth" are Avraham, Yitzchak and Yaakov. And just as they are in Shemoneh Esrei in the blessing that ends Magen Avraham - and this is a form of making a great name, as we shall see in a moment - so too David is in a blessing that ends Magen David.}

Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: {Bereishit 12:2}:
ב וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ, לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל, וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ, וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ; וֶהְיֵה, בְּרָכָה. 2 And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and be thou a blessing.
This is that they say "God of Avraham" {in Shemoneh Esrei}.
וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ - "and I will bless thee" - this is that they say "God of Yitzchak"
וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ - "and make thy name great" - this is that they say "God of Yaakov"
Perhaps they should conclude {the blessing} with all {three} of them? Therefore it teaches וֶהְיֵה, בְּרָכָה - "and be thou a blessing" - with you they conclude and they do not conclude with all of them.

Rava said: I found the elders of Pumpedita {=Rav Yehuda and Rav Ena} sitting and saying, "On Shabbat, both in Shemoneh Esrei and in kiddush {we conclude} Mekadesh HaShabbat {Who sanctifies the Shabbat}. On Yom Yov, both in Shemoneh Esrei and in kiddush {we conclude} Mekadesh Yisrael veHaZemanim {Whe sanctifies Israel and the seasons}."

And so is the halacha.

They mix for him the third cup. He blesses on his food {birkat haMazon}.
The fourth, he finishes upon it the Hallel, and says upon it the Blessing of Song.

And between all these cups, if he wishes to drink he may drink, but between the third and the fourth he should not drink.

Yerushalmi: Why? So that he should not become drunk? He is already drunk! {Here is why not:} What is the difference between wine within the meal and wine after the meal? Wine after the meal intoxicates. Wine within the meal does not intoxicate.

{Bavli:} Ravina said to Rava {our Gemara: Rav Chanan said to Rava}: We may derive from this {requirement of the third cup over which birkat haMazon is said} that the blessing {of birkat haMazon} requires a cup {of wine}.
He said to him: The Sages instituted four cups symbolizing freedom. since it is so, let us perform a mitzvah with each one.

"The fourth, he finishes upon it the Hallel, and says upon it the Blessing of Song":
{Pesachim 118a}
What is "the Blessing of Song?"
Rav Yehuda said: Yehallecha.
And Rabbi Yochanan said: Nishmat Kol Chai.

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