Thursday, May 11, 2006

Rif Pesachim 25b {Pesachim 115b continues ... 116b}


{Pesachim 115b continues}
something which sullies.

Rav Shimi bar Ashi said: Matza before each and every one, and maror before each and every one, but they do not uproot the table except before he who says the haggada.
And Rav Kahana {our gemara: Huna} said: All of these {=matza and maror} only before he who says the haggada.

And the halacha is like Rav Kahana.

And why do we uproot the table?
Rabbi Yannai {alternate girsa: the school of Rabbi Yannai} said: So that the children should see and ask.

Abaye was sitting before Rabba. He saw that he saw that they removed the tray. He said: Have we already eaten that you are removing the tray?
Rabba said: You have exempted us from saying "Mah Nishtana." {Why is this night different}

Shmuel said: {Devarim 16:3}:

ג לֹא-תֹאכַל עָלָיו חָמֵץ, שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל-עָלָיו מַצּוֹת לֶחֶם עֹנִי: כִּי בְחִפָּזוֹן, יָצָאתָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם--לְמַעַן תִּזְכֹּר אֶת-יוֹם צֵאתְךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם, כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ. 3 Thou shalt eat no leavened bread with it; seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread therewith, even the bread of affliction; for in haste didst thou come forth out of the land of Egypt; that thou mayest remember the day when thou camest forth out of the land of Egypt all the days of thy life.
"bread {lechem} upon which we say {onin} upon it many things."

A brayta also says so: לֶחֶם עֹנִי - "bread {lechem} upon which we say {onin} upon it many things."
Another explanation: לֶחֶם עֹנִי - what is the way of a pauper? with a piece. so too here with a piece.
{Pesachim 116a}
Another explanation: לֶחֶם עֹנִי - what is the way of a pauper? he fires {the oven} and she bakes {without delay since they cannot afford to let the oven cool}, so too here, he fires and she bakes.

Therefore, on Pesach we bless on one {whole matza} and one broken one, but on other Yamim Tovim we break bread on two whole loaves, just as on Shabbat. For Rabbi Abba said: A man is required to break bread on two whole loaves on Shabbat. What is the reason? {Shemot 16:22}
כב וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי, לָקְטוּ לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה--שְׁנֵי הָעֹמֶר, לָאֶחָד; וַיָּבֹאוּ כָּל-נְשִׂיאֵי הָעֵדָה, וַיַּגִּידוּ לְמֹשֶׁה. 22 And it came to pass that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for each one; and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses.
is written, and the Sages explained that on Yom Tov as well we need to break bread on two loaves, as on Shabbat, for the basic obligation on Shabbat was because the manna did not fall on Shabbat, but rather on erev Shabbat it came down in pairs. And on Yom Tov as well it also did not fall, but rather on erev Yom Tov it came down in pairs, just as it came down on erev Shabbat. Therefore we need to break bread during Yom Tov on two whole loaves just as we are obligated to do on Shabbat.
And on Pesach {the derasha of} לֶחֶם עֹנִי comes and reduces half of one of them. Therefore we break bread on one and a half. And when he breaks bread he places the half matza next to the whole one and breaks {=blesses and eats}. What is the reason? לֶחֶם עֹנִי is written about it.

"Even though charoset is not a precept. Rabbi Eleazar beRabbi Tzadok says: it is a precept":
What precept? In memory of the apple tree {perhaps under which the Israelite women gave birth in Egypt, based on Sotah 11b}.
To explain: {Shir Hashirim 8:5}:

ה מִי זֹאת, עֹלָה מִן-הַמִּדְבָּר, מִתְרַפֶּקֶת, עַל-דּוֹדָהּ; תַּחַת הַתַּפּוּחַ, עוֹרַרְתִּיךָ--שָׁמָּה חִבְּלַתְךָ אִמֶּךָ, שָׁמָּה חִבְּלָה יְלָדַתְךָ. 5 Who is this that cometh up from the wilderness, leaning upon her beloved? Under the apple-tree I awakened thee; there thy mother was in travail with thee; there was she in travail and brought thee forth.
{and see context}
And Rabbi Yochanan said: In memory of the clay.
Abaye said: Therefore if needs to be made to have an acid taste {in memory of the apple-trees} and needs to be thick {in memory of the clay}.

A brayta in accordance with Rabbi Yochanan: The spices {תבלין - used in charoset} in memory of the straw {תבן - perhaps a word play} -- to explain, such as cinnamon and sinbul, which are similar to straw -- charoset in memory of the clay. Rabbi Eleazar beRabbi Tzadok said: So did the spice vendors declare in Yerushalayim: Come and acquire for yourselves spices for the precept!

They mix him a second cup, and here the son asks. If the son does not have the knowledge to ask, the father teaches him:
"In what way is this night different from all other nights?
That on all nights we do not dip a single time, while on this night, twice.
That on all nights we each chametz and matza, while on this night, only matza.
{The Bach adds, likely incorrectly -- see Mishna in Yerushalmi, which only has three}:
[That on all nights we eat other vegetables, while on this night, maror.]
That on all nights we eat roasted, boiled, or cooked meat, while on this night, only roasted.

According the comprehension of the son the father teaches.
And he expounds from {Devarim 26:5}
ה וְעָנִיתָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי ה אֱלֹקֶיךָ, אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי, וַיֵּרֶד מִצְרַיְמָה, וַיָּגָר שָׁם בִּמְתֵי מְעָט; וַיְהִי-שָׁם, לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל עָצוּם וָרָב. 5 And thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God: 'A wandering Aramean was my father, and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there, few in number; and he became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous.
until he finishes the entirety of the passage {parsha - either at pasuk 8, as we do it, or pasuk 9}.

And nowadays he should not say "roasted meat" for we do not have the korban Pesach.

The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: If his son is wise, he asks him. And if not, his wife asks him. And if not, he asks himself. And even two Torah scholars who are expert in the laws of Pesach ask one another, "Why is this night different..."

"He begins with disgrace and ends with the laudatory":
What is the disgrace?
Rav said: "Initially idol worshippers..." {Mitechila ovedei avoda zara}
And Shmuel said: "Slaves" {=Avadim Hayinu = Devarim 6:21}

And nowadays, we do like both of them.

{Pesachim 116b}
Rabban Gamliel used to say: Whoever does not say these three things on Pesach did not fulfill his obligation, and these are they: Pesach, Matza, and Maror.
Pesach, because Hashem leaped {Pasach} over the houses of our ancestors in Egypt {during the plague of the firstborn}, for it is stated {Shemot 12:27}:
כה וְהָיָה כִּי-תָבֹאוּ אֶל-הָאָרֶץ, אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן יְהוָה לָכֶם--כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּר; וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם, אֶת-הָעֲבֹדָה הַזֹּאת. 25 And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which the LORD will give you, according as He hath promised, that ye shall keep this service.
כו וְהָיָה, כִּי-יֹאמְרוּ אֲלֵיכֶם בְּנֵיכֶם: מָה הָעֲבֹדָה הַזֹּאת, לָכֶם. 26 And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you: What mean ye by this service?
כז וַאֲמַרְתֶּם זֶבַח-פֶּסַח הוּא לַה', אֲשֶׁר פָּסַח עַל-בָּתֵּי בְנֵי-יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּמִצְרַיִם, בְּנָגְפּוֹ אֶת-מִצְרַיִם, וְאֶת-בָּתֵּינוּ הִצִּיל; וַיִּקֹּד הָעָם, וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ. 27 that ye shall say: It is the sacrifice of the LORD'S passover, for that He passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when He smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses.' And the people bowed the head and worshipped.
כח וַיֵּלְכוּ וַיַּעֲשׂוּ, בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל: כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה ה אֶת-מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן, כֵּן עָשׂוּ. {ס 28 And the children of Israel went and did so; as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.
{etc., meant to include the explanation. Thus, perhaps, this response is part of the Biblically mandated response to the children - וַאֲמַרְתֶּם . The other two are also explanations of other parts of the "service" about which the son asks.}

Maror because the Egyptians embittered {marreru} the lives of our ancestors in Egypt, for it is stated {Shemot 1:14}:
יד וַיְמָרְרוּ אֶת-חַיֵּיהֶם בַּעֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה, בְּחֹמֶר וּבִלְבֵנִים, וּבְכָל-עֲבֹדָה, בַּשָּׂדֶה--אֵת, כָּל-עֲבֹדָתָם, אֲשֶׁר-עָבְדוּ בָהֶם, בְּפָרֶךְ. 14 And they made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field; in all their service, wherein they made them serve with rigour.
Matza because they {Bach: our ancestors in Egypt} were redeemed. For it is stated {Shemot 12:39}:
לט וַיֹּאפוּ אֶת-הַבָּצֵק אֲשֶׁר הוֹצִיאוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם, עֻגֹת מַצּוֹת--כִּי לֹא חָמֵץ: כִּי-גֹרְשׁוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם, וְלֹא יָכְלוּ לְהִתְמַהְמֵהַּ, וְגַם-צֵדָה, לֹא-עָשׂוּ לָהֶם. 39 And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual.
Therefore we are obligated to thank, praise, extol, exalt, and bless He who performed for our ancestors and us all these miracles -- he took us out from slavery to freedom, and say before him Halleluyah {the Hallel}.

Until where should he say?
Bet Shammai say: Until {the end of Tehillim perek 113}
ט מוֹשִׁיבִי, עֲקֶרֶת הַבַּיִת-- אֵם-הַבָּנִים שְׂמֵחָה:
9 Who maketh the barren woman to dwell in her house as a joyful mother of children. {N}
and Bet Hillel say: Until {the end of the next perek, Tehillim perek 114}
ח הַהֹפְכִי הַצּוּר אֲגַם-מָיִם; חַלָּמִישׁ, לְמַעְיְנוֹ-מָיִם. 8 Who turned the rock into a pool of water, the flint into a fountain of waters.
And he ends with Geulah {redemption}.
Rabbi Tarfon says: {Blessed are You ... Who has redeemed us and redeemed our ancestors from Egypt, and brought us to this night, to eat on it matza and maror, and he does not conclude {with another blessing}.

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