Wednesday, May 03, 2006

Rif Pesachim 22a {Pesachim 107a continues; 106a-b; 107a}


{Pesachim 107a continues}
that if he did not make havdala on a cup at night, even though he tasted {food}, he may make havdala the next day, as we have stated that if he tasted {food} he may {still} make kiddush, and if he tasted he may {still} make havdala.
And this that Amemar did not taste anything and went to bed fasting, and on the morrow made havdala and then tasted something, it was not because if he had tasted something he would not have been able to make havdala that he acted so, but rather because it is forbidden for a person to taste anything before he makes havdala he acted so.
It matters not whether at night or during the day, for Mar Yenoka and Mar Keshisha the son of Rav Chisda said to Rav Ashi: "Many times we visited Amemar, and one time we did not have wine and we brought him beer, and he did not make havdala and went to bed fasting. The next day we endeavored and brought him wine, and he made havdala and tasted something."
We derive from this three things. We derive from this that is forbidden for one to taste something before he makes havdala; and we derive from this that one who makes havdala in Shemoneh Esrei {saying Ata Chonantanu} still must make havdala on a cup; and we derive from this that one who did not make havdala on Motzaei Shabbat, he may make havdala throughout the entire week.
"Another year, we visited him once and we did not have wine and we brought him beer. He said: this is Chamar Medina {the national beverage}. He made havdala on it and tasted something.

And one is not required to sit fasting until one found wine or beer. Rather if one did not find on Motzaei Shabbat and went to bed fasting, and on the morrow he endeavored and did not find, he may eat. And if he encounters it until the third day, he makes havdala, but not on the flame.

{Pesachim 106a}
The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: {Shemot 20:7}:

ז זָכוֹר אֶת-יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, לְקַדְּשׁוֹ. 7 Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
Make mention {=זכרהו} of it on wine. I only know during the day {to make kiddush, since it states יוֹם}. At night, how do I know? Therefore it teaches זָכוֹר אֶת-יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת.

{The problem is that} the Tanna returns to learn about night and takes the verse to refer {basically} to day. And further, the main kiddush is at night! Rather, say: זָכוֹר אֶת-יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת,לְקַדְּשׁוֹ - mention it over wine as it enters. This only tells me night. Day, from where? Therefore it teaches זָכוֹר אֶת-יוֹם.

During the day, what should he say {for kiddush}? Rav Yehuda said: Borei Peri HaGafen.

Rav Ashi visited Mechoza. They told him: Master should make kiddush for us the Great Kiddush. He said {to himself}: What is the Great Kiddush? Let us see. Whenever there is a blessing, Borei Peri HaGafen is at the head. He said Borei Peri HaGafen, drawing it out. He saw an elderly man bend down and drink {and realized that that was the entirety of it}. He applied to himself the verse {Kohelet 2:14}:
יד הֶחָכָם עֵינָיו בְּרֹאשׁוֹ, וְהַכְּסִיל בַּחֹשֶׁךְ הוֹלֵךְ; וְיָדַעְתִּי גַם-אָנִי, שֶׁמִּקְרֶה אֶחָד יִקְרֶה אֶת-כֻּלָּם. 14 The wise man, his eyes are in his head; but the fool walketh in darkness. And I also perceived that one event happeneth to them all.
{And not the simple meaning that a wise man plans in advance, but rather I would say he interprets this as follows: The wise man looks towards its head. It in this case is kiddush, and at its head is Borei Peri HaGafen}.

{Pesachim 106b}
Rav Brona cited Rav: If he washed his hands, he should not make kiddush.
And so did Rav Ada bar Ahava cite Rav: If he washed his hands, he should not make kiddush.
Rav Yitzchak bar Shmuel bar Marta said to them: Rav has not yet died, and you have already abandoned {=forgotten} his teachings! Many times I stood before Rav. At times that he preferred bread, he made kiddush on bread, and times that he preferred wine, he made kiddush on wine. Thus, the matter depends on preference {what one would prefer}, and not on washing does it depend.
And so is the halacha.

{Pesachim 107a}
The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: We only make kiddush on wine {Ran: this is not to exclude bread but to exclude beer}; and we only bless on wine; and we only say shira {song/praise} on wine.
But on beer and water, do we not bless Shehakol?
Rather, Abaye said, so should you learn {the brayta}: We do not say "bring the cup of blessing"

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