Tuesday, March 08, 2005

Rif Brachot 2b


[if one did this]
deliberately of through negligence he does not fulfill his obligation.

{Brachot 9a} When R Yitzchak beRabbi Yosef came {from Eretz Yisrael}, he said this statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi was not said directly by him {Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi} but was deduced by inference {by R Acha bar Chanina}. For a couple of scholars became drunk at the wedding feast of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi and they did not say kriat Shema. They came before R Yehoshua ben Levi. He said to them: Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai is worthy to be relied upon in time of duress.

And so too the words of R Shimon ben Yochai who says there are times that a person reads Shema of morning immediately after dawn {and thus before sunrise} is bedieved - after the fact - or else in time of duress, such as one who must arise early to go on the road, but lichatchila - initially - no.

{Brachot 4b} The Master {that is, the brayta} said: a man reads keriat Shema and prays. This supports Rabbi Yochanan who says: Who is a member of the World to Come? He who juxtaposes geula {the first blessing after Shema} of evening to the prayer of evening.

And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says the prayers {Amida/Shemoneh Esrei} were instituted in the middle, that in the morning he reads the Shema and prays, and at Mincha time he prays the Mincha prayer, and in the evening he prays the prayer of evening, and afterwards he reads the Shema of evening. It comes out that the reading of the Shema of morning is in the beginning of the day, and the reading of the Shema in the evening is at the beginning of the night, and the prayers are all in the middle.

And we do not hold like Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, and we establish {the halacha} like Rabbi Yochanan, for he has a brayta that supports him.

And even though he says hashkiveinu {the second blessing after Shema at night} between geula and the prayer {Shemoneh Esrei}, it does not interrupt, for since the Sages established hashkiveinu after geula, it is like a lengthened geula.

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