Tuesday, March 08, 2005

Rif Brachot 2a


["Until the end of the first watch": Rav Yehuda cited Shmuel that]
the halacha is like Rabban Gamliel {in the Mishna that one can read Shema the entire night.}

We learn in a brayta {Brachot 8b}: Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai says: there are times that a man reads Shema twice in one night, one before dawn breaks and one after dawn breaks and fulfill his obligation, both for {the Shema of} night and day.

Rav Acha bar Chanina cited Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: we rule in accordance with Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai. {and thus we would rule in accordance with the aforementioned brayta. The gemara continues:}

There are those that apply the statement of Rav Acha bar Chanina {citing Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi} upon this that we learn in a brayta with Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai citing Rabbi Akiva that there are times than a person reads Shema twice in the day, one before the sunrise and once after the sunrise and fulfill his obligation both for day and night - Rav Acha bar Chanina cited Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: we rule in accordance with Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai.

{Brachot 9a} Rabbi Zera said: so long as he does not say Hashkiveinu - {"who causes us to lie down" - since even though it is the night Shema, it is not the beginning time of lying down but rather the end time of lying down. - Rashi}

And all of this is halacha.

However, this that Rabban Gamliel said {that you can say the entire night} and this that R Shimon ben Yochai said {that the night one you can fulfill right before either dawn or sunrise} is bedieved - after the fact - and even if you did so willfully {bemeizid} and read keriat Shema before dawn you will have fulfilled your obligation, even though you are not permitted to do this, for we learnt in a brayta {Berachot 4b}:

The Sages made a fence to their words in order that a man should not come from the field in the evening and say 'I will eat a bit, drink a bit, and sleep a bit, and afterwards I will read Shema and pray' and if sleep snatches him he will have slept the entire night; but rather a man should come from the field and go to the house of gathering {shul} or the house of study - if he is used to reading {Scripture} he should read, and if he is used to learning he should learn - and afterwards read the Shema and pray. And all who violate the words of the Sages is liable the death penalty.
and this that Rabbi Shimon {ben Yochai} said that there are times that a man reads the Shema before sunrise is only in a situation of duress, such as where one is drunk or ill. And if he does this deliberately

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