Wednesday, March 23, 2005

Rif Brachot 15a


Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak said: until the time of the blessing.

And so is the halacha.

Rav Chisda said: A cloth which has been designated to hold tefillin in, and tefillin has been contained in it, it is forbidden to use it to hold zuzim {money}. If he set it aside but did not use it to hold {tefillin}, or used it to hold {tefillin} but did not designate it for this purpose, it is permitted to use it to hold zuzim {money}.
What is the reason?
Because designation {hazmana} for a purpose is not tangible {so without an accompanying use of it nothing has been done}.

And so is the halacha.

And we do not maintain like Abaye who said that designation is tangible, for we learn in perek Nigmar HaDin {7th perek Sanhedrin, daf 47b}: It was said: If one wove a garment {shroud} for a dead person, Abaye said it is forbidden, since designation is tangible, and Rava said it is permitted, since designation is intangible.

And we establish that {in case of a dispute between} Abaye and Rava, the halacha is like Rava, with the exception of ya'al kegam {a mnemonic for 6 cases in which we hold like Abaye, and this is not one of them}.

Rav Yosef the son of Rav Nechunia asked Rav Yehuda: may one place his tefillin under his head {pillow}? Under his feet is no question to me, for since it is disgraceful it is forbidden. What is a questrion for me - under his head - what?

(He said to him: So said Shmuel - it is permitted) And even if his wife is with him.

And the halacha is like Shmuel, even though they refute Shmuel {from a brayta, Rava said we hold like him}. What is the reason?
{Brachot 24a}
Anything which helps protect them{the tefillin} more is better.

And where should he place them?
Rav Yirmiya said: between the bedspread and the pillow, not opposite his head.

Rav Hamnuna the son of Rav Yosef said: One day I stood before Rava and he told me "Go bring me my tefillin." And I went and found them between the bedspread and the pillow not opposite his head, and I knew that that day was the day of immersion {for his wife, so he had slept with her}, and he {Rava} had wanted to teach us the practical halacha.

Two who were sleeping in one talit {this may be a typographical error. our gemara has mita = bed, and the Bach corrects the Rif to read the same} -
We establish like Rav Yosef who said that his wife, since she is like his body, it is permitted to turn his face and read {Shema}, but another, such as his sons or members of his household, since they are not like his body, it is forbidden to read Shema until there is a talit separating between them. And if his sons and the members of his household are young it is permitted.
And until what age?
A girl until the age of 11 years and 1 day, and a boy until the age of 12 years and 1 day.
And both of them {both opinions in the gemara - there was one that gave a younger age - would agree that there was an alternative lower limit for girls, which if they reached first it would not be permitted} until (Yechezkel 16:7):

ז רְבָבָה, כְּצֶמַח הַשָּׂדֶה נְתַתִּיךְ, וַתִּרְבִּי וַתִּגְדְּלִי, וַתָּבֹאִי בַּעֲדִי עֲדָיִים: שָׁדַיִם נָכֹנוּ וּשְׂעָרֵךְ צִמֵּחַ, וְאַתְּ עֵרֹם וְעֶרְיָה. 7 I cause thee to increase, even as the growth of the field. And thou didst increase and grow up, and thou camest to excellent beauty: thy breasts were fashioned, and thy hair was grown; yet thou wast naked and bare.
The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: he was sleeping in a tallit and was unable to bring out his head because of the cold, he separates with his tallit until his neck and reads Shema, and some say until his heart.
And the first Tanna, to the objection that his heart sees his erva {sexual organ} would say that the heart seeing the erva is permitted.
And the halacha is that his heart seeing the erva is forbidden.

Rav Chanina said: I saw Rabbi hanging his tefillin.
They objected: He who hangs his tefillin, his life will be suspended.
And the Dorshei Chamurot {expositors of essentials} said: (Devarim 28:66)

סו וְהָיוּ חַיֶּיךָ, תְּלֻאִים לְךָ מִנֶּגֶד; וּפָחַדְתָּ לַיְלָה וְיוֹמָם, וְלֹא תַאֲמִין בְּחַיֶּיךָ. 66 And thy life shall hang in doubt before thee; and thou shalt fear night and day, and shalt have no assurance of thy life.
- this is one who hangs his tefillin.

And they conclude that Rabbi hung them by their bag, but by the tefillin themselves it is forbidden to hang them, whether by their straps or by their boxes.

{Brachot 24b}
One who causes his voice to be heard in prayer

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