Wednesday, March 23, 2005

Rif Brachot 16a



even though he paused enough time to finish the entirety {of the Shema}.

And so we conclude in the end of masechet Rosh HaShana {34b}, with regards to blowing the shofar, and so with Hallel, and so with megilla. But with prayer only, if he paused enough to finish it all, he returns to the beginning.

{we continue at the bottom of Brachot 24b}
Rav Huna said: if his tallit {garment} was girded around his waist, he reads kriyat Shema.

They learnt {in a brayta} also so: If his tallit of cloth, or leather, or sackcloth, was girded around his waist, he reads the Shema. And for prayer, until it covers his heart.

{Brachot 25a}
Rav Huna said: If he forgot and entered a privy with his tefillin he places his hand over them until he finishes.
Until he finishes, do you think?!
Rather, {as} Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak said: until he finishes the first column {of fecal matter, or possibly this statement includes the first stream of urine}.
But he should stop immediately and get up?
As was learned {in a brayta}: Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: The column {of fecal matter} that is supressed causes dropsy, and urine in the urinary duct that is supressed causes jaundice.

It was said {by Amoraim}: If there is fecal matter on his flesh, or his hand is filthy from the privy {our gemara has a different girsa: his hands rests inside a privy},
Rav Huna said: it is permitted to read Shema.
Rav Chisda said: it is forbidden to read Shema.

Rava said: What is Rav Huna's reasoning? It is written {in the last pasuk in Tehillim, 150:6}:

ו כֹּל הַנְּשָׁמָה, תְּהַלֵּל יָהּ: הַלְלוּ-יָהּ. 6 Let every thing that hath breath praise the LORD. {S} Hallelujah. {P}
{and thus, only the mouth and breathing organs are involved}.
and Rav Chisda, what is his reason? It is written {Tehillim 35:10}

י כָּל עַצְמוֹתַי, תֹּאמַרְנָה-- יְהוָה, מִי כָמוֹךָ:
מַצִּיל עָנִי, מֵחָזָק מִמֶּנּוּ; וְעָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן, מִגֹּזְלוֹ.
10 All my bones shall say: 'LORD, who is like unto Thee, {N}
who deliverest the poor from him that is too strong for him, yea, the poor and the needy from him that spoileth him?'
{and thus, all appendages are involved.}

And we establish like Rav Huna, firstly, because he is the teacher of Rav Chisda, and further, because we ask from {using} him in perek Amar Lahem HaMemuna {Yoma, 3rd perek, daf 30a}:
Rav Papa said: fecal matter in its place {in the hole at the mouth of the ring} is forbidden to read Shema.
What if it went out to the mouth of the ring?
How so?
If it is visible, it is obvious{ly forbidden}.
If it is not visible, the Torah was not given to the ministering angels!
No, it is needed {the question} in the case that he sits and it is visible, he stands it is not visible.
And how is this different than fecal matter on his flesh?
That it was said {by Amoraim, and now the stama of Yoma is citing the same dispute as Brachot}:
There was fecal matter on his flesh, or his wand was dirty {our gemara Yoma does not have "resting in" - the word is missing entirely!} from the privy - Rav Huna says it is permitted to read Shema.
and we learn {there in Yoma}1:
Fecal matter in its place, has much stench,
and not in its place, it does not have much stench.
From the fact that we ask from it {Rav Huna's opinion}, we may derive from this that it is the halacha.

{Back to Brachot 25a}
It was said {by Amoraim}: A bad smell that has a {tangible} source
Rav Huna said: He distances himself 4 cubits and reads Shema.
And Rav Chisda said: He distances himself 4 cubits from the place that the smell stops and reads.

It was taught {in a brayta} in accordance with Rav Chisda: One should not read Shema, not opposite

1 Our gemara has a citation from Rav Chisda as well. It is not clear whether the Rif had this also. It seems he did, and glosses over Rav Chisda's statement, skipping ahead with these words "and we learn." If so, he understands that the question is from Rav Huna and not Rav Chisda, rather than saying that the gemara is asking why it is a question to Rav Papa where elsewhere you have a dispute. Perhaps from the answer of the gemara in Yoma he understands that they are focusing on the opinion of Rav Huna.

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