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10a

{Rosh haShana 33b, Mishna, continues}

If he blew the first tekiah {of the first set} and prolonged the second tekiah {at the end of the first set, such that it was as long as two tekiot}, he only has in hand {of that long tekiah} one {rather than two - that is, he needs to blow another tekiah to begin the second set}.

One who has already blessed {Mussaf} and only then gets ahold of a shofar should blow tekiah teruah tekiah 3 times. Just as the shliach tzibur {agent of the congregation} is obligated, so is every individual obligated.

Rabban Gamliel says: The shliach tzibbur is motzi the public their obligation {acting on their behalf}.

Gemara:

The measure of a tekiah is three teruot? But they learnt {in a brayta}: The measure of a tekiah is equal to a teruah!

{Note: There are multiple ways to explain the following. Read through the Rishonim and Acharonim on the matter. This follows Rambam.}

Abaye said: {Assume, based on this girsa, that a teruah blowing, which is between the tekiot, is twice as long as 1 tekia. Therefore:} Our Tanna {of the Mishna} is reckoning the tekiot of all the sets against the teruot of all the sets. {Therefore, in total, there are 6 tekiahs and 3 teruot, and so they are equal.} The Tanna of the brayta is reckoning those of a single set {such that one teruah is against two tekiot, such that they are equal} and they don't argue.

"The measure of a teruah is three moans {yabevot}":

But they learnt {in a brayta}: The measure of a teruah is three broken {stoccato} tones {shevarim}!

Abaye said: In this they certainly argue. For it is written {Bemidbar 29:1}:

א וּבַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ, מִקְרָא-קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם--כָּל-מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה, לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ: יוֹם תְּרוּעָה, יִהְיֶה לָכֶם. | 1 And in the seventh month, on the first day of the month, ye shall have a holy convocation: ye shall do no manner of servile work; it is a day of blowing the horn unto you. |

And we learn from the mother of Sisra {Shoftim 5:28}:

One holds she made a protracted groan and one other holds she sobbed {a series of short sobs}.

The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: From where do we know that it must be with a shofar? Therefore it informs us {Vayikra 25:9}:

teruot of the seventh month shall be like this one. And how do we know that there is a peshuta {=a straight, flat sound = tekiah} before it? Therefore it informs us וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ. And how do we know that there is a peshuta after it? Therefore it teaches us {later in the same pasuk} תַּעֲבִירוּ. And this is only on Yovel. Rosh Hashana, from where? Therefore it teaches בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִעִי.

{Rosh haShana 34a|

For there is no purpose in teaching בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִעִי {since we know what month Yom Kippur is}. And thus what is it teaching with בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִעִי? That all the teruot of the seventh month are like this. And how do we know that there should be three sets of three each? Therefore it teaches us:

{Vayikra 25:9}: וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ שׁוֹפַר תְּרוּעָה

{Vayikra 23:24}:

{Bemidbar 29:1}:

א וּבַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ, מִקְרָא-קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם--כָּל-מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה, לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ: יוֹם תְּרוּעָה, יִהְיֶה לָכֶם. | 1 And in the seventh month, on the first day of the month, ye shall have a holy convocation: ye shall do no manner of servile work; it is a day of blowing the horn unto you. |

And from where do we know to apply that which was stated here to there and what was stated there to here {since two were written regarding Rosh haShana and one regarding Yovel}?

Therefore it teaches שְּׁבִיעִי - שְּׁבִיעִי for a gezera shava.

How so? Three {sets} which are nine {blasts}. The measure of tekiah is equal to that of teruah. The measure of teruah is like three shevarim.

Rabbi Abahu enacted in Caesaria {to blow} tekiah, three shevarim, teruah, tekiah.

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