Wednesday, February 22, 2006

Rif Pesachim 11b {Pesachim 37a continues; 39a-b}


{Pesachim 37a continues}
or if he first placed it and then heated it -- it is considered bread and is liable to challah, and one may fulfil his obligation with it on Pesach.

And the halacha is like Rabbi Yochanan, and so did Rav Acha meshabcha rule by that which was prepared in an ilpes, like Rabbi Yochanan. And the Baal Halachot said in the name of Kohen Tzedek that he ruled like Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish when he placed it and subsequently heated it {note: following Chavot Yair's emendation}. And there is one who ruled like Rabbi Yehuda who said that bread is only that which is baked in an oven, but that which is prepared in an ilpes, it does not matter if it was heated and then placed, or placed and then heated, it is not called bread, one is not liable to challah, one cannot fulfil his obligation with it on Pesach, and one does not bless upon it haMotzi.

And we found upon this a disproof, from this that we learn in Perek HaCholetz {Yevamot 40a}:

And this chalut, that we say "it is matzah," what is the halachic import {of this statement}? Ravina said: To inform that one may fulfil his obligation on Pesach.
Thus, although it is chalta {mixed with hot water} initially, once you bake it in the oven or ilpes, it is bread, and one may fulfil his obligation with it on Pesach.

They learnt {in a brayta}: They fulfil {their obligation} with matzah na {"raw"} and with matzah made in an ilpes.
What is matzah na?
Rav Yehuda cited Shmuel: Whatever can be broken without threads {of dough} dragging from it. {i.e. it needs to be baked at least that much.}

And when he baked matzah in a cavity in the ground, and watches it well {that it not become chametz}, he fulfils his obligation on Pesach, as we say {in Berachot 38a}: Mar Zutra made it the basis of his meal and said over it the blessing of HaMotzi and Birkat HaMazon. Mar bar Rav Ashi said: And one fulfils his obligation of Pesach with it. What is the reason? We apply to it the term {Devarim 16:3}: לֶחֶם עֹנִי.

And where there is an elderly or sick person who is unable to eat from it dry, they soak it in water until it softens and then he eats it, so long as it is not dissolved. For they learnt {in a brayta - Pesachim 41a}: They fulfil via a wafer {=a matzah} which is soaked or boiled, but not dissolved. These are the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yossi says: they fulfil via a wafer which is soaked, but not one that is boiled, even if it not dissolved, for we require the taste of matzah and it is lacking.

{Pesachim 39a}
: {items listed in a different order than our Mishna}
And these are the herbs with which a man fulfils his obligation on Pesach. With lettuce {chazeret}, with endives {ulshin}, with tamcha {=a kind of cheveril}, with charchavina {=a kind of creeper}, and with maror {lit. "bitter," thus a bitter plant. Jastrow suggests Cichorium Itybus, Succory}.
They fulfil their obligation on Pesach with them whether moist or dry, but not preserved {in vinegar} nor stewed nor boiled.
And they {=the different types} combine to an olive's measure.
And one can fulfil with their stalks, with demai, with maaser rishon whose teruma had been taken off, and with maaser sheni and hekdesh which had been redeemed.

Chazeret is chassa {=lettuce}. Ulshin are endives.
Tamcha: Rabba bar bar Chana said: Tamcheta {=tamcha in Aramaic} is its name.
And in Arabic they call it `al slim.
Charchavina: Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: It is the creeper of the palm tree.
And some explain this as `al qotz'ina {in Arabic} and some explain this as `al handqoqi.

Ravina found Rav Acha son of Rava going after {specifically} merirta.
He said to him: What are your thoughts here? Because they are more bitter {meririn}? But we learnt {tnan} "lettuce" {chazeret}. And in the academy of Shmuel they taught chazeret. And Rabbi Oshaya said: the precept is {properly fulfilled} with chazeret.
{J: Rabbi Oshaya often teaches braytot, as does the academy of Shmuel. Thus it appears all the above are versions of Tannaitic statements.}
And Rava said: Chazeret is lettuce. {=Chasa. And this is a symbol for the fact} That the All-Merciful had pity {chas} on us. And Rav Shmuel bar Nachmani cited Rabbi Yochanan: Why were the Egyptians compared to maror? To tell you that just as this maror, the beginning of it is soft {=the top part of the lettuce} and the end is hard {=the stalk}, so too the Egyptians, they started out soft and in the end were hard.
He {=Rav Acha son of Rava} said: I retract.

{Pesachim 39b}
"They fulfil their obligation with them whether moist or dry":
Rav Chisda said: They only learned this regarding the stalk, but the leaves -- moist, yes, dry {=dried out}, no.

One may not soak bran for fowls, but one may scald it {with water}.
A woman may not soak bran to take in hand with her to the baths {to be used as a depilatory or a cosmetic} but she may rub it while it is dry on her skin.
A man may not chew wheat and place it on his wound on Pesach {on Pesach missing in Mishna in gemara} because they become chametz.

No comments: