Tuesday, May 22, 2007

Rif Yevamot 4b {Yevamot 21a continues; Yerushalmi; 22a;} Breakage; Shniyot; Mamzer and Yibbum


{Yevamot 21a continues}

אמר רב ארבע נשים יש להן הפסק ונקיט רב בידיה תלת אשת אחי האם מן האב ואשת אחי האב מן האם וכלת בתו וזעירי מוסיף אף אשת אבי אמו
Rav said: Four women have a break {in that only they are forbidden but not their descendants or ancestors}.
And Rav had in his hand three: The wife of his mother's paternal brother, the wife of his father's maternal brother, and the daughter-in-law of his daughter.
And Zeiri added: even the wife of his mother's father.

{Yevamot 22a}
תני רבי חייא שלישי שבבנו ושבבתו ושבבן אשתו ושבבת אשתו שניה
רביעי שבחמיו ושבחמותו שניה

אמר ליה רב אשי לרב כהנא שניות דבי ר' חייא יש להן הפסק או אין להן הפסק
ואתינן למיפשטה מהא דאמר רב ד' נשים יש להן הפסק ארבע ותו לא מידי דשמעת מינה דהני דר' חייא אין להן הפסק ודחינן כי קאמר רב לההיא מתניתא קאמר ואתיא למיפשטא מדרבי חייא גופיה דתני שלישי ורביעי שלישי ורביעי אין טפי לא ודחינן דילמא משלישי ואילך ומרביעי ואילך ולא אפשיטא בהדיא
Rabbi Chiyya {our gemara: the academy of Rabbi Chiyya} taught: The third generation of his son, of his daughter, of his wife's son, and of his wife's daughter is secondarily prohibited {by Rabbinic decree}. The fourth generation of his father-in-law and of his mother-in-law is secondarily prohibited.

Rav Ashi said to Rav Kehana: Those who are secondarily prohibited according to the academy of Rabbi Chiyya, do they have breakage {such that e.g. daughters are not prohibited} or do they not have breakage?
And we come to resolve it from this which Rav said: There are four women who have breakage. Four and no more -- that we deduce from this that these of Rabbi Chiyya do not have breakage.
And we reject that, for Rav was speaking to that particular brayta.
And we come to resolve it from Rabbi Chiyya himself, in that he taught the third and the fourth generation -- the third and the fourth generation, yes, but more, no.
And we reject it that perhaps from the third generation and on, and from the fourth generation and on. And we do not explicitly resolve this.

ירושלמי תני בר קפרא מוסיף אם אבי אביו ואם אבי אמו:
Yerushalmi: They taught: Bar Kappara added his father's father's mother and his mother's father's mother.

אשת אחי אביו אסורה לו ובתו מותרת לו
ואחי אביו מותר באשתו ובבתו
אשת אחי אמו אסורה לו ובתו מותרת לו
אחי אמו מותר באשתו ובבתו
נושא אדם אשת בן אחיו ואשת בן אחותו ובת אחיו ובת אחותו המחזיר גרושתו משנשאת חולצת ולא מתיבמת צרתה מתיבמת:
The wife of his father's brother is forbidden to him, and his {=father's brother's} daughter is permitted to him. And his father's brother is permitted to his wife and his daughter. The wife of his mother's brother is forbidden to him, and his {=mother's brother's} daughter is permitted to him. His mother's brother is permitted to his wife and his daughter. A man may marry the wife of his brother's son, the wife of his sister's son, his brother's daughter, and his sister's daughter. His ex-wife, once she has remarried, undergoes chalitza and not yibbum {because he may not use yibbum when it will result in machzir gerushato} while her rival may undergo yibbum.

לעולם אין אדם פוסל את אשתו ואפי' בא על אחותה או על אמה או על בתה
A man can never invalidate his wife, even if he had relations with her sister, her mother, or daughter.

כל העריות האמורות בתורה הבא עליהן שוגג או מזיד פסלה מן הכהונה:
ומה בין עריות לשניות עריות עבר ונשאה יוצאת בלא גט והולד ממזר שניות יוצאת בגט והולד כשר וזו וזו אין להן כתובה
עריות פוטרות צרותיהן שניות חולצות ולא מתיבמות צרת שניה או חולצת או מתיבמת
וגרים אסורים בעריות כדי שלא יאמרו באנו מקדושה חמורה לקדושה קלה אבל בשניות מותרין אמר ר"נ גרים הואיל ואתו לידן נימא בהו מילתא אחים מן האם לא יעידו ואם העידו עדותן עדות אחים מן האב מעידין לכתחלה אמימר אמר אפילו אחים מן האם נמי מעידין לכתחלה ומאי שנא מערוה ערוה לכל מסורה עדות לבית דין מסורה וגר שנתגייר כקטן שנולד דמי:
All forbidden relatives mentioned in the Torah, if one had relations with them, whether accidentally or deliberately, they become invalidated from {marrying} the priesthood.
And what is the distinction between {Biblically} forbidden relatives and {Rabbinic} secondary forbidden relatives? {Biblically} forbidden relatives, if one violated and married her, she goes out without need for a get {divorce document, for the marriage never took hold} and the child is a bastard. Secondary forbidden relatives, she goes out with a get and the child is valid. Both this and that, they do not collect a ketuba. {Biblically} forbidden relatives, they exempt their rivals. Secondarily forbidden relatives, they undergo chalitza rather than yibbum while the rivals of secondarily forbidden relatives may either undergo chalitza or yibbum.
And converts are forbidden in their forbidden relatives {parallel to the relationships spelled out for a born-Israelite, even though the conversion Biblically severs the relationships} so that they should not say "we have come from a more stringent holiness to a less stringent holiness {by converting}. But regarding the secondarily forbidden relatives, they are permitted.

Rav Nachman said: Converts, since the subject has come to are hand, let us say about them a matter. Brothers {who are converts} from the mother's side may not testify, and if they testified their testimony is valid testimony. {This is because they clearly came from the same mothers.} Brothers {who are converts} from the father's side {since we are unsure if this was truly the father} may testify even initially.
Amemar said: Even maternal brothers may testify even initially.
And how is this different from forbidden relatives {where we impose the restriction even on converts}? Forbidden relatives was given to everyone, while testimony was given over to bet Din, and a convert who converts is akin to a newly born babe.

מי שיש לו אח מכל מקום זוקק את אשת אחיו ליבום ואחיו הוא לכל דבר חוץ ממי שיש לו אח מן השפחה ומן העובדת כוכבים
מי שיש לו בן מכ"מ פוטר את אשת אביו מן היבום וחייב על מכתו ועל קללתו ובנו הוא לכל דבר חוץ ממי שיש לו מן השפחה ומן העובדת כוכבים
One who has a brother from anywhere, this binds his brother's wife to yibbum, and he is his brother for every matter, except for one who has a brother from a {non-Hebrew} maidservant or from a gentile mother.
One who has a son from anywhere, {that son} exempts his father's wife from yibbum, and he is obligated on striking and cursing {his father}, and he is his son for every matter, except for one who he has from a {non-Hebrew} maidservant or from a gentile mother.

מ"מ לאיתויי מאי
אמר רב יהודה לאיתויי ממזר ושמע מינה דחייבי לאוין מדאורייתא בני יבום נינהו
כדקיימא לן בכ"מ שאתה מוצא עשה ולא תעשה אם אתה יכול לקיים את שניהם מוטב
What does "from anywhere" come to include.
Rav Yehuda said: To include a bastard.
And we derive from this that the offspring of forbidden relations which are forbidden Biblically {chayvei lavin -- such as a kohen marrying a divorcee, rather than chayvei kerusus, such as a sister} are still reckoned within the realm of yibbum. As we establish that in any place that you find a positive commandment and a negative commandment, if you are able to fulfill both of them, all the better!

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