Wednesday, May 11, 2005

Rif Shabbat 4b



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4b

{Shabbat 10a continued}

and he {Rabbi Yirmiyah} made haste {to finish learning so as to pray}.
Rabbi Zera called upon him {the verse in Mishlei 28:9:}

ט מֵסִיר אָזְנוֹ, מִשְּׁמֹעַ תּוֹרָה-- גַּם תְּפִלָּתוֹ, תּוֹעֵבָה. 9 He that turneth away his ear from hearing the law, even his prayer is an abomination.
{The Rif clarifies:} And specifically for someone for whom Torah is his profession, as we will want to say later on.



When is the beginning of a lawsuit? Rabbi Yona and Rabbi Yirmiyah {our gemara reverses the order} - one says: When the judges wrap themselves round {with a tallit}; and the other says: When the litigants commence [their pleas].

And they do not argue.
This when they are already engaged in judging {so they are already wrapped}; this, when they are not already engaged in judging.

Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Assi were sitting and learning between the pillars, and every hour {or, every now and then} they knocked at the side of the door and announced: If anyone has a lawsuit, let him enter and come.

Rav Chisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna were sitting all day engaged in judgements, and their hearts grew faint. {Rashi: since they were not able to learn Torah. Alternatively, they grew faint because they had not opportunity to eat all day.} Rav Chiyya bar Rav, of Difti, taught {tnei} (Shmot 18:13:)

יג וַיְהִי, מִמָּחֳרָת, וַיֵּשֶׁב מֹשֶׁה, לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת-הָעָם; וַיַּעֲמֹד הָעָם עַל-מֹשֶׁה, מִן-הַבֹּקֶר עַד-הָעָרֶב. 13 And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people; and the people stood about Moses from the morning unto the evening.
And does it enter your mind that Moshe sat and judged the entire day? And the {teaching/learning of} Torah, when was it done? Rather, to tell you that every judge who judges a true judgment {that is, a fair judgement}, even for one hour, the Scriptures considers him a partner in Creation. It is written here מִן-הַבֹּקֶר עַד-הָעָרֶב - from the morning unto the evening, and it is written there, by the Creation {Bereishit 1}, וַיְהִי-עֶרֶב וַיְהִי-בֹקֶר - "and there was evening and there was morning."

Until when must they {the judges} sit at judgment?
Rav Sheshet said: Until the time of the [main] meal [of the day].

And this is the sixth hour, which is the time of eating for a {Torah} scholar.

Rav Ada bar Ahava said: One may recite his prayers [the Eighteen Benedictions] at the baths.

And specifically in a new bathhouse, in which people have not bathed. But in an old bathhouse, in which people have already bathed, it is forbidden, for they learnt {in a brayta}:
If one enters the baths, in the place where people stand dressed, both reading [the shema'] and prayer [the Eighteen Benedictions] are permissible, and a greeting of 'Peace' may certainly be said, and one may don the phylacteries there, and it goes without saying that he need not remove them [if already wearing them];

in the place where people stand undressed, a greeting of 'Peace' is not permissible there and reading {Shema} and praying goes without saying {that one may not}; the phylacteries must be removed, and it goes without saying that they must not be donned.
{Shabbat 10b}
This supports Rav Hamnuna, for Rav Hamnuna cited Ulla: It is forbidden for a man to extend a greeting of 'Peace' to his neighbour in the baths, because it is said {in Shoftim 6:23}:

כג וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ ה שָׁלוֹם לְךָ, אַל-תִּירָא: לֹא, תָּמוּת. 23 And the LORD said unto him: 'Peace be unto thee; fear not; thou shalt not die.'
{which is being interpreted as Shalom, peace, being Hashem's name}

Rabba bar Mechasia cited Rav Chama bar Guria who cited Rav: A man is permitted to say "By faith!" in a privy, even though it is written

ט וְיָדַעְתָּ, כִּי-ה אֱלֹקֶיךָ הוּא הָאֱלֹקִים: הָאֵל, הַנֶּאֱמָן--שֹׁמֵר הַבְּרִית וְהַחֶסֶד לְאֹהֲבָיו וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְו‍ֹתָו, לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר. 9 Know therefore that the LORD thy God, He is God; the faithful God, who keepeth covenant and mercy with them that love Him and keep His commandments to a thousand generations;
This instance of נֶאֱמָן {is an adjective rather than a proper noun} just as they say "faithful God" {in Aramaic translation of the verse} but as a Name itself He is not called נֶאֱמָן.

And one who gives a present to his friend need not inform him.

And these words are when it is going to eventually be revealed, for it is written {Shemot 34:29}:

כט וַיְהִי, בְּרֶדֶת מֹשֶׁה מֵהַר סִינַי, וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיַד-מֹשֶׁה, בְּרִדְתּוֹ מִן-הָהָר; וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא-יָדַע, כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו--בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ. 29 And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of the testimony in Moses' hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face sent forth beams while He talked with him.
But for a present which will not eventually be revealed, he needs to inform him, for it is written {Shemot 31:13}:


יג וְאַתָּה דַּבֵּר אֶל-בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, לֵאמֹר, אַךְ אֶת-שַׁבְּתֹתַי, תִּשְׁמֹרוּ: כִּי אוֹת הִוא בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם, לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם--לָדַעַת, כִּי אֲנִי ה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם. 13 'Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying: Verily ye shall keep My sabbaths, for it is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, that ye may know that I am the LORD who sanctify you.

Hashem said to Moshe: I have a precious gift in My treasure house, called the Sabbath, and desire to give it to Israel; go and inform them.

From here, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: If one gives a loaf to a child, he must inform his mother.

What shall he do to him?

Rav Pappa said: He must rub him with the self-same kind {of food}.

And although Shabbat was a gift that was eventually going to be revealed, its reward was not something that was eventually going to be revealed.

And these words {that one must inform him} is with respect to a gift to a wealthy person, but a gift to a poor person, {Mishlei 21:14}:


יד מַתָּן בַּסֵּתֶר, יִכְפֶּה-אָף; וְשֹׁחַד בַּחֵק, חֵמָה עַזָּה. 14 A gift in secret pacifieth anger, and a present in the bosom strong wrath.
And Rabba bar Mechasia cited Rav Chama bar Guria who cited Rav: A man should never single out one son among his other sons, for on account of the two sela's weight of silk, which Yaakov gave Yoseph in excess of his other sons, his brothers became jealous of him and the matter resulted in our forefathers' descent into Egypt.

{Shabbat 11a}
And Rabba bar Mechasia cited Rav Chama bar Guria who cited Rav: Every city whose roofs are higher than the synagogue will ultimately be destroyed, as it is said {in Ezra 9:9}

ט כִּי-עֲבָדִים אֲנַחְנוּ--וּבְעַבְדֻתֵנוּ, לֹא עֲזָבָנוּ אֱלֹקֵינוּ; וַיַּט-עָלֵינוּ חֶסֶד לִפְנֵי מַלְכֵי פָרַס לָתֶת-לָנוּ מִחְיָה, לְרוֹמֵם אֶת-בֵּית אֱלֹקֵינוּ וּלְהַעֲמִיד אֶת-חָרְבֹתָיו, וְלָתֶת-לָנוּ גָדֵר, בִּיהוּדָה וּבִירוּשָׁלִָם.
9 For we are bondmen; yet our God hath not forsaken us in our bondage, but hath extended mercy unto us in the sight of the kings of Persia, to give us a reviving, to set up {lit. to raise up} the house of our God, and to repair the ruins thereof, and to give us a fence in Judah and in Jerusalem.
By way of explanation, just as one who raises up the house of our God causes the establishment {building up} of its ruins, so too one who does not raise up the house of our God causes that which is standing to become ruins.

And they only said this regarding his own house, but as for towers and turrets, we have no objection.

And Rabba bar Mechasia cited Rav Chama bar Guria who cited Rav: Fasting is as potent against a dream as fire against flax.
And Rav Chisda said: and {assuming one fasted} on that very day.
And Rav Yosef said: and even on Shabbat.

Rav Oshaya the son of Rav Idi visited the house of Rav Ashi. A third grown calf was prepared for him and he was invited, 'Master, partake somewhat.'
He said: I am engaged in a fast.
They said to him: Let master borrow it and repay. And do you not accept Rav Yehuda's ruling in Rav's name: One may borrow his fast and repay it?
He said to them: I am sitting {engaged} in a fast for a dream, and Rabba bar Mechasia cited Rav Chama bar Guria who cited Rav: Fasting is as potent against a dream as fire against flax. And Rav Chisda said: and {assuming one fasted} on that very day. And Rav Yosef said: and even on Shabbat.

And specifically a fast for a dream is permitted on Shabbat, but another type of fast, no, just as we learnt in perek Ain Omedin LeHitpallel {Brachot 5th perek, daf 31b}: Rabbi Eleazar cited Rabbi Yossi ben Zimra: Anyone who engages in a fast on Shabbat, they tear up for him the {evil} decree of 70 years. Rav Nachman {our gemara, bar Yitzchak, and attributes to him only the portion of making up the fast} said: And yet he is punished

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