Wednesday, May 04, 2005

Rif Shabbat 1b


{Shabbat 5a continued}
And so too when Rabin came {from Israel to Bavel} he cited Rabbi Yochanan: a man's hand is considered for his as 4 X 4 {handbreadths}.

{Shabbat 3b}
They learnt {in a brayta}: If one's hand is filled with fruit and he stretches it outside, it is forbidden to bring it back; and another brayta: it is permitted to bring it back.
Both this and this {brayta} are dealing with his initial action being non-deliberate, and it is no contradiction. Here {where he may bring it back} is to the same courtyard {in which it was initially}, and here is to another courtyard.

{Shabbat 4a}
And it is as Rava asked of Rav Nachman: If a person holds a handful of produce in his hand and he extends it without, may he withdraw it into the same courtyard?
He replied, It is permitted.
And what about another courtyard?
Said he to him, It is forbidden.
And what is the difference?
He said to him: When you measure out a measure of salt for it! There his intention is not carried out; here his intention is carried out.

Rav Bibi bar Abaye said: If one places a loaf of bread in an oven, do they permit him to remove it before he incurs the liability of a stoning or not?
{our gemara, initially: "sin-offering," rather than "stoning" - the Rif is following Rav Ashi's emendation, and Rav Acha the son of Rava's even initial version of the statement}

{Says the Rif}: In this matter, the {post-Talmudic} Sages asked: Let us see - removing the bread is a chochma {wisdom, henceforth "art"} and not a melacha {act of "work"} as we learn in perek kol kitvei kodesh {Shabbat perek 16, daf 117b}: They learnt in the School of Shmuel {our gemara: school of Rabbi Yishmael}: {one of the occurences in Vayikra 23 - our gemara cites a different pasuk from Shemot 20} כָּל-מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה, לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ - "ye shall do no manner of servile work" - to exclude the removal of bread {from the oven} and the blowing of the shofar which are art, rather than work.

But then why here do they only allow him here so that he does not come to a liability of stoning, implying that if this were not so, it would be forbidden? But why? He would not have been doing an act of "work?" And they give many answers which are unsatisfactory to us, and because of this, we have not written them down {here}. But for us, this is what seems like the logical answer to this question: Although removal of the bread in the oven is an art and not work, the Sages only permitted it when he forgot and left bread in the over, and the day became sanctified upon him {that it, night fell, and it became Shabbat}, since he can salvage from it provision for three meals for Shabbat, because of the honor of Shabbat, and even so, he needs to do it {remove the bread} with a change, as we learn later on {Shabbat 117b}: "and he must not remove it with a mardeh {a baker's shovel, usually used to remove bread}, but with a knife." But removal not for the meals of Shabbat, the Sages did not permit, even via a change. And the removal {of bread} here {in Rav Bibi bar Abaye's statement} is not for the purpose of meals, for it is not {yet} fit for consumption, and therefore the Sages did not permit it except so that he would not come to violate a prohibition carrying a penalty of stoning.

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