Wednesday, August 30, 2006

Rif Yoma 5b {Yoma 85a continues; 86b; Taanit 16a; Yoma 86b; 85b}


{Yoma 85a continues}
But he who has on his conscience the defamation {profaning} of God {=chillul haShem}, neither penitence can suspend, nor Yom Kippur for, nor sufferings wipe out. But all the three only suspend, and death wipes out, as it is written {Yeshaya 22:14}:

יב וַיִּקְרָא, אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה צְבָאוֹת--בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא: לִבְכִי, וּלְמִסְפֵּד, וּלְקָרְחָה, וְלַחֲגֹר שָׂק. 12 And in that day did the Lord, the GOD of hosts, call to weeping, and to lamentation, and to baldness, and to girding with sackcloth;
יג וְהִנֵּה שָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה, הָרֹג בָּקָר וְשָׁחֹט צֹאן, אָכֹל בָּשָׂר, וְשָׁתוֹת יָיִן; אָכוֹל וְשָׁתוֹ, כִּי מָחָר נָמוּת. 13 And behold joy and gladness, slaying oxen and killing sheep, eating flesh and drinking wine--'Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we shall die!'
יד וְנִגְלָה בְאָזְנָי, יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת: אִם-יְכֻפַּר הֶעָו‍ֹן הַזֶּה לָכֶם, עַד-תְּמֻתוּן, אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה, צְבָאוֹת. {פ} 14 And the LORD of hosts revealed Himself in mine ears: Surely this iniquity shall not be expiated by you till ye die, saith the Lord, the GOD of hosts.
Profaning the Name {of God}, how so?
Rav said: If one such as myself takes meat from the butcher, and does not immediately pay.
Rabbi Yochanan said: If one such as myself walks four cubits without Torah or tefillin.
Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak said: When people say of a man: "His Master should pardon him for his deeds."
Rav Yitzchak bar Rav Dimi said: When a man's companions are ashamed of his reputation. {see gemara for alternate girsa}

The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: When a man reads and learns {Torah}, attends to Torah scholars, speaks gently with other people, his buying and selling in the market are pleasant and his business dealing are conducted in a trustworthy fashion, what do the people say about him? Fortunate is Ploni who has learned Torah! Fortunate is his father and fortunate is his teacher who has taught him Torah! Woe to those people who do not learn Torah. Ploni learned Torah and you see how beautiful are his ways and how proper are his actions. Upon him Scriptures states {Yeshaya 49:3}:
ג וַיֹּאמֶר לִי, עַבְדִּי-אָתָּה--יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֲשֶׁר-בְּךָ אֶתְפָּאָר. 3 And He said unto me: 'Thou art My servant, Israel, in whom I will be glorified.'
And when a man reads and learns Torah and does not speak gently with people, and his buying and selling are not pleasant, and he does not conduct business dealings honestly, what do the people say about him? Woe to Ploni who has learned Torah! Woe to his father and to his teacher who taught him Torah! Fortunate are those who do not learn Torah! Ploni learnt Torah and you see how disgusting are his actions and how degraded are his ways. Upon him the Scriptures states {Yechezkel 36:20}:
כ וַיָּבוֹא, אֶל-הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר-בָּאוּ שָׁם, וַיְחַלְּלוּ, אֶת-שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי--בֶּאֱמֹר לָהֶם עַם-יְהוָה אֵלֶּה, וּמֵאַרְצוֹ יָצָאוּ. 20 And when they came unto the nations, whither they came, they profaned My holy name; in that men said of them: These are the people of the LORD, and are gone forth out of His land.

Rabbi Chama bar Chanina said: Repentance is great in that it brings healing to the world, as it is written {Yirmiyahu 3:22}:
כב שׁוּבוּ בָּנִים שׁוֹבָבִים, אֶרְפָּה מְשׁוּבֹתֵיכֶם; הִנְנוּ אָתָנוּ לָךְ, כִּי אַתָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ. 22 Return, ye backsliding children, I will heal your backslidings.--'Here we are, we are come unto Thee; for Thou art the LORD our God.
{read the Hebrew as: I will heal because of your repentance}

Rabbi Levi said: Great is repentance, for it reaches the Throne of Glory. As is written {Hoshea 14:2}

ב שׁוּבָה, יִשְׂרָאֵל, עַד, ה אֱלֹקֶיךָ: כִּי כָשַׁלְתָּ, בַּעֲו‍ֹנֶךָ. 2 Return, O Israel, unto the LORD thy God; for thou hast stumbled in thine iniquity.
{with the derasha on the word ad}

{Yoma 86b}
What is a baal teshuva {a penitant man}?
Such that a sin comes to his hand and he separates himself from it.
Rav Yehuda adds: With the same place, the same time, and the same woman.

Rav yehuda said: Rav would contrast {verses}.
It is written {Mishlei 28:13}:
יג מְכַסֶּה פְשָׁעָיו, לֹא יַצְלִיחַ; וּמוֹדֶה וְעֹזֵב יְרֻחָם. 13 He that covereth his transgressions shall not prosper; but whoso confesseth and forsaketh them shall obtain mercy.
And it is written {Tehillim 32}:
א לְדָוִד, מַשְׂכִּיל: אַשְׁרֵי נְשׂוּי-פֶּשַׁע; כְּסוּי חֲטָאָה. 1 [A Psalm] of David. Maschil. Happy is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is pardoned.
{with focus on word כסוי}
This is no contradiction. Here refers to sins between man and God while there it refers to sins between man and his fellow.

They learnt {in a brayta}: If one commits a sin one time he is forgiven; twice, he is forgiven; three times, he is not forgiven. For it is stated {Iyyov 33:29}:

כט הֶן-כָּל-אֵלֶּה, יִפְעַל-אֵל-- פַּעֲמַיִם שָׁלוֹשׁ עִם-גָּבֶר. 29 Lo, all these things doth God work, twice, yea thrice, with a man,
But we learnt {in a brayta}: three times, he is forgiven; four times, he is not forgiven?
This is no question. Here is individually, and here is in public.

And we learn in perek seder taaniyot {Taanit 16a}:
The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: If a man has a transgression in hand and confesses, and returns to it, to what is he compared? To a man who grabs a sheretz {source of ritual impurity} in hand, even if he immerses in all the waters of the world his immersion does not count for him. If he throws it from his hand, immediately his immersion counts for him. For it is written {Mishlei 28:13}
יג מְכַסֶּה פְשָׁעָיו, לֹא יַצְלִיחַ; וּמוֹדֶה וְעֹזֵב יְרֻחָם. 13 He that covereth his transgressions shall not prosper; but whoso confesseth and forsaketh them shall obtain mercy.
and it is written {Eicha 3:41}:
מא נִשָּׂא לְבָבֵנוּ אֶל-כַּפָּיִם, אֶל-אֵל בַּשָּׁמָיִם. 41 Let us lift up our heart with our hands unto God in the heavens.
They learnt {in a brayta}: Transgressions which he confessed upon them this Yom Kippur, he should not confess upon them the next Yom Kippur. And if he repeated them {after Yom Kippur}, he needs to confess them {next Yom Kippur}. And if he did not repeat them and confesses them {come next Yom Kippur}, upon him Scriptures states {Mishlei 26:11}:
יא כְּכֶלֶב, שָׁב עַל-קֵאוֹ-- כְּסִיל, שׁוֹנֶה בְאִוַּלְתּוֹ. 11 As a dog that returneth to his vomit, so is a fool that repeateth his folly.
{taking repeateth to mean repeating the confession rather than confessing the sin}
Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov says: All the more is he praiseworthy, for it is written {Tehillim 51:5}:
ה כִּי-פְשָׁעַי, אֲנִי אֵדָע; וְחַטָּאתִי נֶגְדִּי תָמִיד. 5 For I know my transgressions; and my sin is ever before me.
So to what shall I apply כְּכֶלֶב שָׁב עַל-קֵאוֹ -- "As a dog that returneth to his vomit?" Like Rav Huna.
For Rav Huna said: Once one commits a sin and repeats it, it is permitted to him. It is permitted to him, do you truly think?! Rather, say, it seems to him like something permitted.

And he needs to delineate the sin. For it is written {Shemot 32:31}:
לא וַיָּשָׁב מֹשֶׁה אֶל-ה, וַיֹּאמַר: אָנָּא, חָטָא הָעָם הַזֶּה חֲטָאָה גְדֹלָה, וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם, אֱלֹהֵי זָהָב. 31 And Moses returned unto the LORD, and said: 'Oh, this people have sinned a great sin, and have made them a god of gold.
These are the words of Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava.
Rabbi Akiva says: He need not.
Rather, to what will I apply וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם, אֱלֹהֵי זָהָב - "and have made them a god of gold?" Like Rabbi Yannai. For Rabbi Yannai said: Moshe said before Hashem: Master of the World! Because of the silver and gold that you showered upon Israel until they said "Enough!" caused them to make a god of gold.

{Yoma 86b}
We expose the hypocrites because of chillul hashem {profaning God's name} for it is written Yechezkel 3:20:
כ וּבְשׁוּב צַדִּיק מִצִּדְקוֹ וְעָשָׂה עָוֶל, וְנָתַתִּי מִכְשׁוֹל לְפָנָיו הוּא יָמוּת: כִּי לֹא הִזְהַרְתּוֹ, בְּחַטָּאתוֹ יָמוּת, וְלֹא תִזָּכַרְןָ צִדְקֹתָו אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה, וְדָמוֹ מִיָּדְךָ אֲבַקֵּשׁ. 20 Again, when a righteous man doth turn from his righteousness, and commit iniquity, I will lay a stumblingblock before him, he shall die; because thou hast not given him warning, he shall die in his sin, and his righteous deeds which he hath done shall not be remembered; but his blood will I require at thy hand.

{Yoma 87a}
Anyone who causes the public to merit to do mitzvot, he will not be able to come to a sin {for Hashem will push away the chance of sinning so that he does not come to do it} so that it will not be that his students inherit the World to Come and he descends to Sheol {the underworld}. For it is written {Tehillim 16:10}:
י כִּי, לֹא-תַעֲזֹב נַפְשִׁי לִשְׁאוֹל; לֹא-תִתֵּן חֲסִידְךָ, לִרְאוֹת שָׁחַת. 10 For Thou wilt not abandon my soul to the nether-world; neither wilt Thou suffer Thy godly one to see the pit.
And anyone who causes the public to sin, he will not be able to repent {parallel to the above} so that it is not the case that his students descend to Sheol while he inherits the World to Come. For it is written {Mishlei 28:17}:
יז אָדָם, עָשֻׁק בְּדַם-נָפֶשׁ-- עַד-בּוֹר יָנוּס, אַל-יִתְמְכוּ-בוֹ. 17 A man that is laden with the blood of any person shall hasten his steps unto the pit; none will support him.
{Yoma 85b}
To him who says: "I will sin, repent, sin again, and repent again," is not given the opportunity to repent.
For him who thinks, "I will sin; Yom Kippur will atone for my sins," Yom Kippur does not atone.
A sin towards God, Yom Kippur atones for; but a sin towards his fellowman is not atoned for by Yom Kippur so long as the wronged fellowman is not righted.

Upon ths Rabbi Eleazer ben Azariah interpreted {/lectured} the following {Vayikra 16:30}:
ל כִּי-בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם, לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם: מִכֹּל, חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם, לִפְנֵי ה, תִּטְהָרוּ. 30 For on this day shall atonement be made for you, to cleanse you; from all your sins shall ye be clean before the LORD.
{Bach adds: The sin towards God, Yom Kippur atones for; but sins toward man, Yom Kippur cannot atone for till the neighbor has been appeased.}
{the derasha takes "before the LORD" to refer to sins between man and God as opposed to sins between man and man.}

Rabbi Akiva said: Fortunate are you, O Israel! Before Whom are you cleansed, and Who cleanses you? Your Father in Heaven cleanses you, for it is stated {Yechezkel 36:25}:
כה וְזָרַקְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם מַיִם טְהוֹרִים, וּטְהַרְתֶּם: מִכֹּל טֻמְאוֹתֵיכֶם וּמִכָּל-גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם, אֲטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם. 25 And I will sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean; from all your uncleannesses, and from all your idols, will I cleanse you.
and it states {Yirmiyahu 17:13}:
יג מִקְוֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל ה, כָּל-עֹזְבֶיךָ יֵבֹשׁוּ; יסורי (וְסוּרַי) בָּאָרֶץ יִכָּתֵבוּ, כִּי עָזְבוּ מְקוֹר מַיִם-חַיִּים אֶת-ה. {פ} 13 Thou hope of Israel, the LORD! All that forsake Thee shall be ashamed; they that depart from Thee shall be written in the earth, because they have forsaken the LORD, the fountain of living waters.
{taking mikvei to be ritual cleansing bath rather than hope}
Just as a mikveh cleanses {purifies}

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