Sunday, December 10, 2006

Rif Rosh HaShana 2a {Rosh HaShana 5a continues; 9b}


{Rosh HaShana 5a continues}
As they taught {in a Mishna}: legal documents of debt which are predated are invalid, and those which are postdated are valid.

{Rosh HaShana 9b}
"and also for the planting of trees":
From where do we know this?
For it is written {Vayikra 19:23}:

כג וְכִי-תָבֹאוּ אֶל-הָאָרֶץ, וּנְטַעְתֶּם כָּל-עֵץ מַאֲכָל--וַעֲרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ, אֶת-פִּרְיוֹ; שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים, יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים--לֹא יֵאָכֵל. 23 And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as forbidden; three years shall it be as forbidden unto you; it shall not be eaten.
and it is written {next pasuk}:

כד וּבַשָּׁנָה, הָרְבִיעִת, יִהְיֶה, כָּל-פִּרְיוֹ--קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים, לַיהוָה. 24 And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD.
and we learn {a gezeira shava of} shana-shana from Tishri, for it is written {Devarim 11}:
יב אֶרֶץ, אֲשֶׁר-יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ דֹּרֵשׁ אֹתָהּ: תָּמִיד, עֵינֵי ה אֱלֹקֶיךָ בָּהּ--מֵרֵשִׁית הַשָּׁנָה, וְעַד אַחֲרִית שָׁנָה. {ס} 12 a land which the LORD thy God careth for; the eyes of the LORD thy God are always upon it, from the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year. {S}
The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: One who plants, slips {="bends the runner of a plant into the earth to take root"} or grafts {trees} erev Sheviit 30 days before Rosh HaShana, that year {=the sixth year} counts for him and he is permitted to maintain them during sheviit. Less than 30 days before Rosh HaShana, the {sixth} year does not count and it is forbidden to maintain them during sheviit.

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