Friday, February 24, 2006

Rif Pesachim 12a {39b continues ... 40b}


{39b continues}
The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: These are the things which cannot come to chimutz {=fermentation}: That which is baked, that which is boiled, that which is scalded {chalut}, having been scalded in hot water.
'That which is boiled?!' But while it is being boiled it becomes chametz!
Rav Papa said: He {=the brayta, does not mean 'boiled' by itself but} means that which is baked and subsequently boiled.

They learnt {in a brayta}: Flour into which drips {of water} fell on it, even all day, does not become chametz.
Rav Papa said: And this is only if it acted drop after drop {without an appreciable interval in between}.

They said in the academy of Rabbi Shela: Vatika {the name of a certain pastry} is permitted.
But they learnt {in a brayta}: Vatika is forbidden.
This is no contradiction. Here is with water and salt, and here is with oil and salt, for since there is no water, oil is considered fruit juice and fruit juice does not cause chimutz.
To explain Vatika, it is flour boiled with water and salt.

Mar Zutra said: One should not line his pot with kimcha de`avishuna {=Soncino: flour of roast grain} Lest it has not been properly cooked {=baked} and comes to become chametz.
The explanation of kimcha de`avishuna is shatita {=unripe barley flour mixed with honey} from green {=unripe} ears {=stalks}.

{Pesachim 40a}
Abaye said: One should not singe two ears {of grain} together lest water issue from one and the other absorb it, and it come to become chametz.
Rava said to him: If so, even one {ear} also.
Rather, Rava says that it {sap coming from the ear of grain} is considered fruit juice, and fruit juices do not cause things to become chametz.
And we establish like Rava.

The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: One must not wash {=moisten before grinding} barley on Pesach. And if he washed - if they split, they are forbidden, but if they did not split they are permitted. Rabbi Yossi says: He can soak them in vinegar, and the vinegar binds them {preventing them from becoming chametz}.

Shmuel said: The halacha is not like Rabbi Yossi.
Rav Chisda cited Mar Ukva: Not that they entirely split, but rather anything that if you would place them on a wine cask they will split of their own accord {then they are forbidden}.
And Shmuel said: It means that they are literally split.
Shmuel acted in practice {on the assumption} that it means that they literally split.

And us, since in this matter there was no explicit halachic ruling in this matter, not like Mar Ukva and not like Shmuel, we act stringently like Mar Ukva, for it is a case of Biblical doubt, and in cases of Biblical doubt we act stringently.

And this is only as regards to eating this barley in its distinct form, but if he finds it {a grain} in a cooked stew, and they had not split, since the prohibition of eating chametz in a mixture in any minute amount is Rabbinic, we do not forbid this stew in which two or three grains had been found, unless it had {literally} split, like Shmuel, for it is a case of doubt in a Rabbinic matter, and in cases of doubt in Rabbinic matters, we are lenient.

And some say that {in general, even when the grain is distinct and we wonder whether we can eat it} the halacha is like Shmuel, for Mar Ukva was a student of Shmuel, and we establish that the halacha is not like the student in the place of the teacher. And furthermore, Shmuel acted in practice like his opinion, and if it was not established that such was the halacha, he would not have acted in practice like this.

Rav {our gemara: Rabba} said: A baal nefesh should not wash {grain}.
That is to say, one who is diligent with himself in performance of commandments should not wash even hard wheat {which does not become chametz easily}.

Rav Nachman said: He who will heed Abba {=Rav or Rabba} will {end up} eat{ing} moldy {=unclean} bread.

In the household of Rav Huna they washed.
In the household of Rabba bar Avuah {our gemara: bar Avin} they washed.

And now, they {=the Gaonim} sent from the Mesivta that we are not experts in washing. Therefore they did not permit us to wash. And regarding chalita {stirring the flour with hot water} we do not have anyone nowadays who knows how tgo do chalita. Therefore it is forbidden.

And one must watch the flour of Pesach from the time of reaping {ketzira}. For the verse states {Shemot 12:17}:

יז וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם, אֶת-הַמַּצּוֹת, כִּי בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, הוֹצֵאתִי אֶת-צִבְאוֹתֵיכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם; וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת-הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם--חֻקַּת עוֹלָם. 17 And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your hosts out of the land of Egypt; therefore shall ye observe this day throughout your generations by an ordinance for ever.
{which literally and thus midrashically means "and you shall watch/guard the matzot"}

And Rava said to those who turned about {=handled} kipei: When you turn them about, turn them about for the sake of matza.
That is to say, be diligent with them that water not come upon them.
To explain kepei: Heaps {of grain}.

{Pesachim 40b}
A certain ship foundered in Chishta {a canal in Bavel, before Pesach}. Rava permitted to sell it {=the grain which became chametz} to gentiles.
Rabba bar Levai objected to Rava: A garment in which kilayim {a forbidden mixture} is lost,

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