Tuesday, February 21, 2006

Rif Pesachim 10b {Pesachim 36a continues ... 37a}



{Pesachim 36a continues}
in practice like Rabbi Akiva, we would have said that the halacha is like the Sages who forbid whether by kneading or by smoothing, as we establish in all places where the halacha is not ruled upon explicitly. And further, an individual vs. the many, the halacha is like the many. But now that we find that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who is later, acted in practice like Rabbi Akiva, we may deduce that the halacha is like Rabbi Akiva.

And we cannot say that the halacha is not like Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. Firstly, because we do not find an Amora who argues upon him, and furthermore, the gemara brings a proof from him, and if the halacha were not like him, how could we bring a proof from him? Rather, it is certain that this is the halacha.

And we find a few {post-Talmudic} Rabbis who forbid whether by kneading or by smoothing, whether on the first day or the second day, like the Sages. And there are other {post-Talmudic} Sages who permit. And we have written what we believe.

{Pesachim 36b}
The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: Devarim 16:3:

ג לֹא-תֹאכַל עָלָיו חָמֵץ, שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל-עָלָיו מַצּוֹת לֶחֶם עֹנִי: כִּי בְחִפָּזוֹן, יָצָאתָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם--לְמַעַן תִּזְכֹּר אֶת-יוֹם צֵאתְךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם, כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ. 3 Thou shalt eat no leavened bread with it; seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread therewith, even the bread of affliction; for in haste didst thou come forth out of the land of Egypt; that thou mayest remember the day when thou camest forth out of the land of Egypt all the days of thy life.
This is to exclude chalut and ashisha.
{Chalut = a rich bread made of dough prepared by stirring the flour with hot water. But see clarification later. Ashisha = a pancake, where the dough is made compact and substantial by pressing.}
I might think that one cannot fulfil his obligation on Pesach except by pat hadra`a {coarse bread}. Therefore it teaches מַצּוֹת מַצּוֹת {the repetition, or else just the use of the generic noun} -- Scriptures extends it even to the מַצּוֹת of {King} Shlomo {i.e., even made of the finest flour}. If so, why does the verse state לֶחֶם עֹנִי? To exclude chalut and ashisha.

To explain pat hadra`a = bread of bran flour.

(And if it is difficult for you this that we say {in Yevamot 40a}:
This chalut that we say "it is matzah," what is the halachic import {of this statement}? Ravina said: To say that one fulfils his obligation of Pesach.
There {in Yevamot} is where they stirred with hot water. Here is where they stirred with honey. One can indeed deduce this from the language, for they link it, and thus it is similar, to ashisha. We thus derive.)

{Pesachim 37a}
They learnt {in a brayta}: Bet Shammai say: They should not bake much bread on Yom Tov, and Bet Hillel permit.

And these words are regarding other Yamim Tovim. But during Pesach, it is forbidden to knead and bake more than five quarters {of a kav} plus, which is the measure which requires challah {be taken off}. And this is what {Pesachim 48b} Rava said: A kav of Melogna {=a place in Bavel, where they had this measure of kav} for Pesach.

{Pesachim 37a resumes}
The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: One may fulfil {his obligation} with fine bread, coarse bread, and Syrian cakes shaped in figures on Pesach.
And even though they say that one should not make Syrian cakes shaped in figures on Pesach, Rabbi Yehuda said: This thing Baytus ben Zonin asked the Sages: "Why may one not make Syrian cakes shaped in figures on Pesach?" They said to him: "Because a woman would tarry over it and it would become chametz." He said to them: "But it is possible to make it in a mold and it would be shaped immediately!" They said to him: "Then it will be said that all the Syrian cakes are forbidden but the Syrian cakes of Baytus are permitted!" {which is absurd, because most bakers lack these molds. thus they did not permit him}

And not of bakers did they speak, but rather of every {regular} man. But bakers, since they are experts they will not tarry on it.

{another way of reading this, according to one gloss, which does not make sense, is that not only bakers are forbidden but even of a regular individual. This does not seem to work out with the Rif's words.}

No comments: