Friday, December 23, 2005

Rif Eruvin 26a {Eruvin 80b continues ... 81a; +Yerushalmi}


{Eruvin 80b continues}
and we may benefit a person without his knowledge {=zachin leAdam shelo` befanav}.

What is the quantity? When they {=the people} are many – food for two meals for all of them. When they are few, as a dried fig – {the measure one is liable} for carrying on the Shabbat – for each one.

Rabbi Yossi said, To what does this apply? To the beginning of an eruv {=when they first make an eruv}, but for the remnants of an eruv, any quantity. And they only said to make an eruv in the courtyards {even though a shittuf in alleyways already covers it} so that the children should not forget.

And how many is "many" {mentioned in the Mishna}?
Rav Yehuda cited Shmuel: From 18 and upwards.
And why was the number 18 selected?
Rav Yitzchak the son of Rav Yehuda said: It was explained to me in the name of {our gemara: by} my father: Whenever we would divide it {our gemara expands "it" to be the food for two meals} and it does not allow a portion of a dried fig to each one, that is the definition of "many." And if not, they are "few." And thus we are indirectly informed that two meals is equal to the size of eighteen dried figs.

With anything we may make an eruv and a shituf except with water and salt - these are the words of Rabbi Eliezer.
Rabbi Yehoshua says, "A {whole} loaf {of bread} is an eruv. Even something baked of a se'ah {which is a large quantity}, if it is broken, one may not make an eruv with it; a loaf of an issar {=a small quantity}if it is whole, on may make an eruv with it."

{Eruvin 81a}
The Sages learnt {in a brayta}: With anything we may make an eruv - of techum {=Shabbat boundary} - and with anything we may make a shituf - of alleyways. And they only said to make an eruv with bread in the case of an eruv of courtyards.
And our gemara {and brayta} is like Rabbi Yehoshua who said that we may only make eruv of courtyards with bread, and we may only make an eruv with a whole loaf of bread, even if it only is an issar {in measure}, and we may not make an eruv of a broken loaf of bread, even if it was baked from a se`ah. What is the reason? We do not make an eruv with a broken one because of the possibility of causing hatred.

Why do they make an eruv in courtyards {when the shituf will suffice}? Because of the ways of peace. And there was a case in which there was enmity between one woman and her {female} neighbor, and she sent her eruv in the hand of her son, and she {=the neighbor} embraced him and kissed him. He came and related this to his mother. She said, "how much does she love you." From this, peace was made. This is what is written {Mishlei 3:17}

יז דְּרָכֶיהָ דַרְכֵי-נֹעַם; וְכָל-נְתִיבוֹתֶיהָ שָׁלוֹם. 17 Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace.

{Eruvin 81a resumes}
Shmuel said: We may make an eruv with rice bread but not with millet bread.
Rav said: We may make an eruv with lentil bread.

A man may give a ma'ah {=money} to the storekeeper {of wine} and to the baker to acquire for him an eruv {such that when the others come to purchase wine for the shituf or bread for the eruv the storekeeper will give them also for the man so he will have a portion in the eruv or shituf}. These are the words of Rabbi Eliezer.
But the Sages say: His money did not acquire for him.

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